source: appstream-generator/contrib/setup/js_tmp/Flot/examples/axes-time-zones/tz/asia @ 4841

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1# <pre>
2# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
3# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
4
5# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
6# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
7# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
8
9# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
10#
11# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
12# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
13# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
14#
15# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
16# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
17# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
18# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
19# of the IATA's data after 1990.
20#
21# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
22# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
23#
24# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
25# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
26# I found in the UCLA library.
27#
28# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
29# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
30#
31# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
32# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
33# Corrections are welcome!
34#            std  dst
35#            LMT        Local Mean Time
36#       2:00 EET  EEST  Eastern European Time
37#       2:00 IST  IDT   Israel
38#       3:00 AST  ADT   Arabia*
39#       3:30 IRST IRDT  Iran
40#       4:00 GST        Gulf*
41#       5:30 IST        India
42#       7:00 ICT        Indochina*
43#       7:00 WIT        west Indonesia
44#       8:00 CIT        central Indonesia
45#       8:00 CST        China
46#       9:00 CJT        Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)*
47#       9:00 EIT        east Indonesia
48#       9:00 JST  JDT   Japan
49#       9:00 KST  KDT   Korea
50#       9:30 CST        (Australian) Central Standard Time
51#
52# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
53
54# From Guy Harris:
55# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
56# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
57# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
58# Worldwide Edition).  The names for time zones are guesses.
59
60###############################################################################
61
62# These rules are stolen from the `europe' file.
63# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
64Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
65Rule    EUAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
66Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
67Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
68Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
69Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
70Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    S
71Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       -
72Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1991    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
73Rule RussiaAsia 1985    1991    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
74Rule RussiaAsia 1992    only    -       Mar     lastSat 23:00   1:00    S
75Rule RussiaAsia 1992    only    -       Sep     lastSat 23:00   0       -
76Rule RussiaAsia 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
77Rule RussiaAsia 1993    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
78Rule RussiaAsia 1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
79
80# Afghanistan
81# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
82Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890
83                        4:00    -       AFT     1945
84                        4:30    -       AFT
85
86# Armenia
87# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
88# Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
89# in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
90# readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
91# when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
92# reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
93# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
94# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
95# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
96
97# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
98# While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
99# follow Russia's "old" rules.
100
101# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
102# According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
103# http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
104#
105# The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
106# Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
107# Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
108# or
109# (brief)
110# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
111# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
112Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2
113                        3:00    -       YERT    1957 Mar    # Yerevan Time
114                        4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
115                        3:00    1:00    YERST   1991 Sep 23 # independence
116                        3:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT   1995 Sep 24 2:00s
117                        4:00    -       AMT     1997
118                        4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT   2012 Mar 25 2:00s
119                        4:00    -       AMT
120
121# Azerbaijan
122# From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
123# According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
124# Resolution available at: http://aif.az/docs/daylight_res.pdf
125# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
126Rule    Azer    1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    S
127Rule    Azer    1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       -
128# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
129Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
130                        3:00    -       BAKT    1957 Mar    # Baku Time
131                        4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
132                        3:00    1:00    BAKST   1991 Aug 30 # independence
133                        3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT   1992 Sep lastSat 23:00
134                        4:00    -       AZT     1996 # Azerbaijan time
135                        4:00    EUAsia  AZ%sT   1997
136                        4:00    Azer    AZ%sT
137
138# Bahrain
139# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
140Zone    Asia/Bahrain    3:22:20 -       LMT     1920            # Al Manamah
141                        4:00    -       GST     1972 Jun
142                        3:00    -       AST
143
144# Bangladesh
145# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
146# According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
147# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
148#
149# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
150# <a href="http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288">
151# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
152# </a>
153# or
154# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html">
155# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
156# </a>
157#
158# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
159# June
160# 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
161# crippling power crisis. "
162#
163# The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
164# implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
165
166# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
167# They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
168# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
169#
170# Some sources:
171# <a href="http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601">
172# http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
173# </a>
174# <a href="http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2">
175# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
176# </a>
177#
178# Our wrap-up:
179# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html">
180# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
181# </a>
182
183# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
184# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
185# time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
186# Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
187#
188# No DST end date has been announced yet.
189
190# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
191# Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
192# instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
193#
194# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
195# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
196# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021">
197# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
198# </a>
199# or
200# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html">
201# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
202# </a>
203
204# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
205# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
206# Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
207# maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
208# "continue for an indefinite period."
209#
210# One of many places where it is published:
211# <a href="http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html">
212# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
213# </a>
214
215# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
216# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
217# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
218#
219# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
220# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228">
221# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
222# </a>
223# and
224# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html">
225# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
226# </a>
227#
228# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
229# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
230# 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
231# Minister's Office last night..."
232
233# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
234# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
235# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
236# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817">
237# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
238# </a>
239# or
240# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html">
241# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
242# </a>
243
244# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
245Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    S
246Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      23:59   0       -
247
248# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
249Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890
250                        5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
251                        6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time
252                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
253                        6:30    -       BURT    1951 Sep 30
254                        6:00    -       DACT    1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time
255                        6:00    -       BDT     2009
256                        6:00    Dhaka   BD%sT
257
258# Bhutan
259# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
260Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
261                        5:30    -       IST     1987 Oct
262                        6:00    -       BTT     # Bhutan Time
263
264# British Indian Ocean Territory
265# Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
266# 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
267# We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
268# assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
269# then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
270# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
271Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907
272                        5:00    -       IOT     1996 # BIOT Time
273                        6:00    -       IOT
274
275# Brunei
276# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
277Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar   # Bandar Seri Begawan
278                        7:30    -       BNT     1933
279                        8:00    -       BNT
280
281# Burma / Myanmar
282# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
283Zone    Asia/Rangoon    6:24:40 -       LMT     1880            # or Yangon
284                        6:24:36 -       RMT     1920       # Rangoon Mean Time?
285                        6:30    -       BURT    1942 May   # Burma Time
286                        9:00    -       JST     1945 May 3
287                        6:30    -       MMT                # Myanmar Time
288
289# Cambodia
290# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
291Zone    Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 -       LMT     1906 Jun  9
292                        7:06:20 -       SMT     1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
293                        7:00    -       ICT     1912 May
294                        8:00    -       ICT     1931 May
295                        7:00    -       ICT
296
297# China
298
299# From Guy Harris:
300# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.
301
302# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
303# No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
304# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
305# Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
306# has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of
307# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
308#
309# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
310# painful to suck in another copy..  So, here is what I have for
311# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
312#
313#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
314#     1987 mid-April - ??
315
316# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
317# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
318# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
319
320# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
321# Shanks & Pottenger write that China (except for Hong Kong and Macau)
322# has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1, observing summer DST
323# from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's
324# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986.
325# Go with Shanks & Pottenger for now.  I made up names for the other
326# pre-1980 time zones.
327
328# From Shanks & Pottenger:
329# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
330Rule    Shang   1940    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
331Rule    Shang   1940    1941    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
332Rule    Shang   1941    only    -       Mar     16      0:00    1:00    D
333Rule    PRC     1986    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    D
334Rule    PRC     1986    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=11 0:00    0       S
335Rule    PRC     1987    1991    -       Apr     Sun>=10 0:00    1:00    D
336
337# From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
338# BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
339# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
340# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
341#
342# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
343# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
344# http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
345# boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
346# counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
347# counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
348# therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
349# county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
350# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
351# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
352
353# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
354# I just now checked Google News for western news sources that talk
355# about China's single time zone, and couldn't find anything before 1986
356# talking about China being in one time zone.  (That article was: Jim
357# Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
358# time--sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05.  By the way, this
359# article confirms the tz database's data claiming that China began
360# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
361#
362# From Thomas S. Mullaney (2008-02-11):
363# I think you're combining two subjects that need to treated
364# separately: daylight savings (which, you're correct, wasn't
365# implemented until the 1980s) and the unified time zone centered near
366# Beijing (which was implemented in 1949). Briefly, there was also a
367# "Lhasa Time" in Tibet and "Urumqi Time" in Xinjiang. The first was
368# ceased, and the second eventually recognized (again, in the 1980s).
369#
370# From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
371# There seems to be a good chance China switched to a single time zone in 1949
372# rather than in 1980 as Shanks & Pottenger have it, but we don't have a
373# reliable documentary source saying so yet, so for now we still go with
374# Shanks & Pottenger.
375
376# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
377# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area)
378# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
379Zone    Asia/Harbin     8:26:44 -       LMT     1928 # or Haerbin
380                        8:30    -       CHAT    1932 Mar # Changbai Time
381                        8:00    -       CST     1940
382                        9:00    -       CHAT    1966 May
383                        8:30    -       CHAT    1980 May
384                        8:00    PRC     C%sT
385# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time")
386# most of China
387Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:52 -       LMT     1928
388                        8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949
389                        8:00    PRC     C%sT
390# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area)
391# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
392# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
393# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
394# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
395Zone    Asia/Chongqing  7:06:20 -       LMT     1928 # or Chungking
396                        7:00    -       LONT    1980 May # Long-shu Time
397                        8:00    PRC     C%sT
398# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time")
399# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
400# the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
401# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
402# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
403# east Xinjiang, including Urumqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
404# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
405# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
406# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
407Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928 # or Urumchi
408                        6:00    -       URUT    1980 May # Urumqi Time
409                        8:00    PRC     C%sT
410# Kunlun Time
411# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
412# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
413# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
414# and Yarkand.
415
416# From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
417# Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
418# Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
419# but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
420# what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
421# they implicitly use Beijing time.
422#
423# On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
424# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
425# hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
426# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
427# local governments such as the Urumqi city government use both times in
428# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
429# "Urumqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
430# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
431#
432# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
433# widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
434# Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
435#
436# (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
437# or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with
438# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
439# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
440# others moving their clocks ahead.)
441#
442# ...an example of an official website using of Urumqi time.
443#
444# The first few lines of the Google translation of
445# <a href="http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39">
446# http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39
447# </a>
448# (retrieved 2009-10-13)
449# > Urumqi fire seven people are missing the alleged losses of at least
450# > 500 million yuan
451# >
452# > (Reporter Dong Liu) the day before 20:20 or so (Urumqi Time 18:20),
453# > Urumqi City Department of International Plaza Luther Qiantang River
454# > burst fire. As of yesterday, 18:30, Urumqi City Fire officers and men
455# > have worked continuously for 22 hours...
456
457# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
458# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
459# English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
460#
461# 1. Wulumuqi...
462# 2. Kashi...
463# 3. Urumqi...
464# 4. Kashgar...
465# ...
466# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Urumqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
467# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
468# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
469#
470# 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
471# start date for Xinjiang time.
472#
473# Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
474# publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
475# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
476# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
477
478Zone    Asia/Kashgar    5:03:56 -       LMT     1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar
479                        5:30    -       KAST    1940     # Kashgar Time
480                        5:00    -       KAST    1980 May
481                        8:00    PRC     C%sT
482
483
484# From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
485# I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
486# Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
487# it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
488# and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
489# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
490# think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
491# obtained from
492# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
493# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
494# </a>.
495
496# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
497# Here are the dates given at
498# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
499# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
500# </a>
501# as of 2009-10-28:
502# Year        Period
503# 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
504# 1942        Whole year
505# 1943        Whole year
506# 1944        Whole year
507# 1945        Whole year
508# 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
509# 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
510# 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
511# 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
512# 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
513# 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
514# 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
515# 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
516# 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
517# 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
518# 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
519# 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
520# 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
521# 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
522# 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
523# 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
524# 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
525# 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
526# 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
527# 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
528# 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
529# 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
530# 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
531# 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
532# 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
533# 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
534# 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
535# 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
536# 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
537# 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
538# 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
539# 1977        Nil
540# 1978        Nil
541# 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
542# 1980 to Now Nil
543# The page does not give start or end times of day.
544# The page does not give a start date for 1942.
545# The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
546# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
547# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
548# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
549
550# Hong Kong (Xianggang)
551# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
552Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S
553Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       -
554Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
555Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
556Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
557Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
558Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
559Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
560Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       -
561Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:30    1:00    S
562Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       -
563Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18 3:30    1:00    S
564Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
565Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       -
566Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S
567Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       -
568Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
569Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8  3:30    1:00    S
570Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       -
571# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
572Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:36 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
573                        8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25
574                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15
575                        8:00    HK      HK%sT
576
577###############################################################################
578
579# Taiwan
580
581# Shanks & Pottenger write that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it
582# was still controlled by Japan.  This is hard to believe, but we don't
583# have any other information.
584
585# From smallufo (2010-04-03):
586# According to Taiwan's CWB,
587# <a href="http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm">
588# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
589# </a>
590# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
591
592# From Arthur David Olson (2010-04-07):
593# Here's Google's translation of the table at the bottom of the "summert.htm" page:
594# Decade                                                            Name                      Start and end date
595# Republic of China 34 years to 40 years (AD 1945-1951 years) Summer Time               May 1 to September 30
596# 41 years of the Republic of China (AD 1952)                 Daylight Saving Time      March 1 to October 31
597# Republic of China 42 years to 43 years (AD 1953-1954 years) Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to October 31
598# In the 44 years to 45 years (AD 1955-1956 years)            Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to September 30
599# Republic of China 46 years to 48 years (AD 1957-1959)       Summer Time               April 1 to September 30
600# Republic of China 49 years to 50 years (AD 1960-1961)       Summer Time               June 1 to September 30
601# Republic of China 51 years to 62 years (AD 1962-1973 years) Stop Summer Time
602# Republic of China 63 years to 64 years (1974-1975 AD)       Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to September 30
603# Republic of China 65 years to 67 years (1976-1978 AD)       Stop Daylight Saving Time
604# Republic of China 68 years (AD 1979)                        Daylight Saving Time      July 1 to September 30
605# Republic of China since 69 years (AD 1980)                  Stop Daylight Saving Time
606
607# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
608Rule    Taiwan  1945    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
609Rule    Taiwan  1945    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
610Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D
611Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
612Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
613Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
614Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
615Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
616Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
617Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    D
618Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
619
620# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
621Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 # or Taibei or T'ai-pei
622                        8:00    Taiwan  C%sT
623
624# Macau (Macao, Aomen)
625# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
626Rule    Macau   1961    1962    -       Mar     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S
627Rule    Macau   1961    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       -
628Rule    Macau   1963    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    S
629Rule    Macau   1964    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S
630Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    S
631Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Oct     31      0:00    0       -
632Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S
633Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       -
634Rule    Macau   1972    1974    -       Apr     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    S
635Rule    Macau   1972    1973    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    0       -
636Rule    Macau   1974    1977    -       Oct     Sun>=15 3:30    0       -
637Rule    Macau   1975    1977    -       Apr     Sun>=15 3:30    1:00    S
638Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    S
639Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    0       -
640# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
641Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:20 -       LMT     1912
642                        8:00    Macau   MO%sT   1999 Dec 20 # return to China
643                        8:00    PRC     C%sT
644
645
646###############################################################################
647
648# Cyprus
649# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
650Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S
651Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       -
652Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
653Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       -
654Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S
655Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
656Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       -
657Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
658Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
659# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
660Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
661                        2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
662                        2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
663# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
664
665# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
666# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
667Link    Asia/Nicosia    Europe/Nicosia
668
669# Georgia
670# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
671# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
672# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
673# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
674# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
675#
676# From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
677# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
678# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
679# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
680#
681# From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
682#
683# Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet
684# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
685# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
686# ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
687# Mikhail Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
688# of integration into Europe.
689
690# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
691# Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
692# [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
693# Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
694# +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
695# about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
696# because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
697# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
698# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
699
700
701# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
702Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:16 -       LMT     1880
703                        2:59:16 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
704                        3:00    -       TBIT    1957 Mar    # Tbilisi Time
705                        4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
706                        3:00    1:00    TBIST   1991 Apr  9 # independence
707                        3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT   1992 # Georgia Time
708                        3:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1994 Sep lastSun
709                        4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1996 Oct lastSun
710                        4:00    1:00    GEST    1997 Mar lastSun
711                        4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   2004 Jun 27
712                        3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT   2005 Mar lastSun 2:00
713                        4:00    -       GET
714
715# East Timor
716
717# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
718
719# From Joao Carrascalao, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
720# <a href="http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm">
721# East Timor may be late for its millennium
722# </a> (1999-12-26/31):
723# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
724# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
725# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
726# conflicts with their way of life.
727
728# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
729# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
730# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
731
732# <a href="http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/last/00-08-16.undh.html">
733# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
734# (2000-08-16)</a>:
735# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
736# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
737# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
738# midnight on Saturday, September 16.
739
740# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
741Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912
742                        8:00    -       TLT     1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
743                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
744                        9:00    -       TLT     1976 May  3
745                        8:00    -       CIT     2000 Sep 17 00:00
746                        9:00    -       TLT
747
748# India
749# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
750Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1880    # Kolkata
751                        5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
752                        6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time
753                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
754                        5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15
755                        5:30    -       IST
756# The following are like Asia/Kolkata:
757#       Andaman Is
758#       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
759#       Nicobar Is
760
761# Indonesia
762#
763# From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
764# <http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime>
765# says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
766# time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
767# and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
768#
769# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
770# Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
771# JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
772# Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
773# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
774# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
775# These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
776# Regimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Editions
777# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
778# from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
779# (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
780# switched on 1945-09-23.
781#
782# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
783Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10
784# Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
785# but this must be a typo.
786                        7:07:12 -       JMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Jakarta
787                        7:20    -       JAVT    1932 Nov         # Java Time
788                        7:30    -       WIT     1942 Mar 23
789                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
790                        7:30    -       WIT     1948 May
791                        8:00    -       WIT     1950 May
792                        7:30    -       WIT     1964
793                        7:00    -       WIT
794Zone Asia/Pontianak     7:17:20 -       LMT     1908 May
795                        7:17:20 -       PMT     1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
796                        7:30    -       WIT     1942 Jan 29
797                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
798                        7:30    -       WIT     1948 May
799                        8:00    -       WIT     1950 May
800                        7:30    -       WIT     1964
801                        8:00    -       CIT     1988 Jan  1
802                        7:00    -       WIT
803Zone Asia/Makassar      7:57:36 -       LMT     1920
804                        7:57:36 -       MMT     1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
805                        8:00    -       CIT     1942 Feb  9
806                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
807                        8:00    -       CIT
808Zone Asia/Jayapura      9:22:48 -       LMT     1932 Nov
809                        9:00    -       EIT     1944 Sep  1
810                        9:30    -       CST     1964
811                        9:00    -       EIT
812
813# Iran
814
815# From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
816# This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
817# The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
818#
819#       Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
820#       No. 16760/T233 H                                1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
821#
822#       The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
823#
824#       The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
825#       based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
826#       of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
827#       and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
828#       and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
829#       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
830#
831#       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
832#       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
833#       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
834#       Shahrivar.
835#
836#       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
837#
838# From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
839# for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
840# date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
841# Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
842# I have also changed the abbreviations to what is considered correct
843# here in Iran, IRST for regular time and IRDT for daylight saving time.
844#
845# From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
846# The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
847# that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
848# leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
849# plan to change that law....
850#
851# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
852# Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
853# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
854# stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
855# That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
856# calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
857#
858# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
859# discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
860# For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
861# the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
862# Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
863# known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
864# 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
865# no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
866# in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
867# arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
868# vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
869# Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
870# 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
871#
872# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
873# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
874# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
875#
876# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Norgaard Welen:
877# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
878# daylight saving time ...
879# http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
880#
881# From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
882# This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
883# Iran, Volume 63, Number 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
884# [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
885# The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
886# on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
887# be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
888# thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
889#
890# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
891Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
892Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       S
893Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       S
894Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       S
895Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    D
896Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
897Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
898Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
899Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
900Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
901Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
902Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
903Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
904Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
905Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
906Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
907Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
908Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
909Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
910Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
911Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
912Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
913Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
914Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
915Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
916Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
917Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
918Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
919Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
920Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
921Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
922Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
923Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
924Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
925Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
926Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
927Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
928Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
929Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
930Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
931Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
932Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
933Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
934Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
935Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
936Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
937Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
938Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
939Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
940# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
941Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
942                        3:25:44 -       TMT     1946    # Tehran Mean Time
943                        3:30    -       IRST    1977 Nov
944                        4:00    Iran    IR%sT   1979
945                        3:30    Iran    IR%sT
946
947
948# Iraq
949#
950# From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
951# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
952# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
953# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
954# are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
955#
956# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
957# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
958# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
959# to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
960# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
961#
962# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
963
964# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
965# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
966# news sources (in Arabic):
967# <a href="http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html">
968# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
969# </a>
970# <a href="http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10">
971# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
972# </a>
973#
974# We have published a short article in English about the change:
975# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html">
976# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
977# </a>
978
979# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
980Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
981Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
982Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
983Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
984Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
985Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    D
986# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo.
987# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
988#
989Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    D
990Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       S
991# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
992Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890
993                        2:57:36 -       BMT     1918        # Baghdad Mean Time?
994                        3:00    -       AST     1982 May
995                        3:00    Iraq    A%sT
996
997
998###############################################################################
999
1000# Israel
1001
1002# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1003#
1004# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
1005# different abbreviations in use:
1006#
1007# JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1008# IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1009# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1010#
1011# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
1012# I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
1013# EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
1014# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
1015# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
1016# settings in Israeli computers.
1017#
1018# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
1019# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
1020# family is from India).
1021
1022# From Shanks & Pottenger:
1023# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1024Rule    Zion    1940    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1025Rule    Zion    1942    1944    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1026Rule    Zion    1943    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1027Rule    Zion    1944    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1028Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1029Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1030Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Apr     16      2:00    1:00    D
1031Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1032Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       May     23      0:00    2:00    DD
1033Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    D
1034Rule    Zion    1948    1949    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1035Rule    Zion    1949    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1036Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1037Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S
1038Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1039Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S
1040Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D
1041Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S
1042Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D
1043Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S
1044Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D
1045Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S
1046Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D
1047Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S
1048Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
1049Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S
1050Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D
1051Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1052Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D
1053Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S
1054Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D
1055Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S
1056Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
1057Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1058Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D
1059Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
1060Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
1061Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1062Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr      9      0:00    1:00    D
1063Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1064
1065# From Ephraim Silverberg
1066# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1067# and 2005-02-17):
1068
1069# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1070# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
1071# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
1072# days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
1073# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
1074# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
1075# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
1076# time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
1077# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
1078# conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
1079# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
1080# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
1081# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
1082# 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
1083# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
1084# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
1085# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
1086# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
1087# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
1088# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
1089# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
1090# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
1091
1092# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1093Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1094Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1095Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Mar     25      0:00    1:00    D
1096Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Aug     26      0:00    0       S
1097Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Mar     24      0:00    1:00    D
1098Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       S
1099Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Mar     29      0:00    1:00    D
1100Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1101Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    D
1102Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1103
1104# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
1105# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
1106# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
1107
1108# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1109Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1110Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Aug     28      0:00    0       S
1111Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
1112Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1113
1114# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
1115# time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
1116# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
1117#
1118#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
1119#
1120# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
1121#
1122# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
1123#
1124#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
1125#
1126#       where YYYY is the relevant year.
1127
1128# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1129Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    1:00    D
1130Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1131Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1132Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1133Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    D
1134Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1135Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    D
1136Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Sep      3      2:00    0       S
1137
1138# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
1139# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
1140# years 2001-2004 as well.
1141#
1142# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
1143#
1144#       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
1145#
1146# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
1147# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
1148#
1149#       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
1150
1151# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1152Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1153Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S
1154Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D
1155Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S
1156Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D
1157Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S
1158Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D
1159Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S
1160Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D
1161Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S
1162
1163# The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
1164# 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
1165# last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
1166# 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
1167# night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
1168#
1169# Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
1170#
1171#       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
1172
1173# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
1174# I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
1175# <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
1176# along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
1177# to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
1178# (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
1179# The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
1180#
1181# Rule  Zion    2005    2012    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D
1182#
1183# but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
1184# "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
1185# springtime transitions explicitly.
1186
1187# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1188Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1189Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S
1190Rule    Zion    2006    2010    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D
1191Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S
1192Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S
1193Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S
1194Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S
1195Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S
1196Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1197Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S
1198Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D
1199Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S
1200
1201# From Ephraim Silverberg (2012-10-18):
1202# Yesterday, the Interior Ministry Committee, after more than a year
1203# past, approved sending the proposed June 2011 changes to the Time
1204# Decree Law back to the Knesset for second and third (final) votes
1205# before the upcoming elections on Jan. 22, 2013.  Hence, although the
1206# changes are not yet law, they are expected to be so before February 2013.
1207#
1208# As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday in March.
1209# DST ends at 02:00 on the first Sunday after October 1, unless it occurs on the
1210# second day of the Jewish Rosh Hashana holiday, in which case DST ends a day
1211# later (i.e. at 02:00 the first Monday after October 2).
1212# [Rosh Hashana holidays are factored in until 2100.]
1213
1214# From Ephraim Silverberg (2012-11-05):
1215# The Knesset passed today (in second and final readings) the amendment to the
1216# Time Decree Law making the changes ... law.
1217
1218# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1219Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23 2:00    1:00    D
1220Rule    Zion    2013    2026    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S
1221Rule    Zion    2027    only    -       Oct     Mon>=3  2:00    0       S
1222Rule    Zion    2028    max     -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S
1223# The following rules are commented out for now, as they break older
1224# versions of zic that support only signed 32-bit timestamps, i.e.,
1225# through 2038-01-19 03:14:07 UTC.
1226#Rule   Zion    2028    2053    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S
1227#Rule   Zion    2054    only    -       Oct     Mon>=3  2:00    0       S
1228#Rule   Zion    2055    2080    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S
1229#Rule   Zion    2081    only    -       Oct     Mon>=3  2:00    0       S
1230#Rule   Zion    2082    max     -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S
1231
1232# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1233Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:56 -       LMT     1880
1234                        2:20:40 -       JMT     1918    # Jerusalem Mean Time?
1235                        2:00    Zion    I%sT
1236
1237
1238
1239###############################################################################
1240
1241# Japan
1242
1243# `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris.
1244
1245# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
1246# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
1247# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued
1248# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.''
1249
1250# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times
1251# <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm>:
1252# Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
1253# [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
1254# daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
1255# deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
1256# dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
1257# Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
1258# of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
1259# wanted to keep it.)
1260
1261# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1262# Shanks & Pottenger write that DST in Japan during those years was as follows:
1263# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1264Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D
1265Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=8  2:00    0       S
1266Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D
1267Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D
1268# but the only locations using it (for birth certificates, presumably, since
1269# their audience is astrologers) were US military bases.  For now, assume
1270# that for most purposes daylight-saving time was observed; otherwise, what
1271# would have been the point of the 1951 poll?
1272
1273# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
1274# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
1275# Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0.
1276# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
1277# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
1278# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1279# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
1280
1281# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
1282# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
1283# which stands for the time on E 135 degree.
1284# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
1285# standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
1286# time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree....  But "western standard
1287# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1288# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1289# standard....
1290#
1291# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1292# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1293
1294# Shanks & Pottenger claim JST in use since 1896, and that a few
1295# places (e.g. Ishigaki) use +0800; go with Suzuki.  Guess that all
1296# ordinances took effect on Jan 1.
1297
1298# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1299Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1300                        9:00    -       JST     1896
1301                        9:00    -       CJT     1938
1302                        9:00    Japan   J%sT
1303# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
1304
1305# Jordan
1306#
1307# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html">
1308# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1309# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1310# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1311# all year round.
1312#
1313# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html">
1314# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1315# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1316# by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1317# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1318# government's departments from six to seven hours.
1319#
1320# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1321# Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1322#
1323# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
1324# For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
1325# about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
1326#
1327# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
1328# http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
1329# "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
1330#
1331
1332# From Phil Pizzey (2009-04-02):
1333# ...I think I may have spotted an error in the timezone data for
1334# Jordan.
1335# The current (2009d) asia file shows Jordan going to daylight
1336# saving
1337# time on the last Thursday in March.
1338#
1339# Rule  Jordan      2000  max   -  Mar   lastThu     0:00s 1:00  S
1340#
1341# However timeanddate.com, which I usually find reliable, shows Jordan
1342# going to daylight saving time on the last Friday in March since 2002.
1343# Please see
1344# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=11">
1345# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=11
1346# </a>
1347
1348# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
1349# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
1350# <a href="http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279">
1351# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
1352# </a>
1353#
1354# Google's translation:
1355#
1356# > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
1357# > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
1358# > of the month of March of each year.
1359#
1360# So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
1361
1362# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
1363# We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
1364
1365# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
1366# Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
1367# switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
1368# until about the same time next year (at least).
1369# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950
1370#
1371# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-25):
1372# For now, assume this is just a one-year measure.  If it becomes
1373# permanent, we should move Jordan from EET to AST effective tomorrow.
1374
1375# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1376Rule    Jordan  1973    only    -       Jun     6       0:00    1:00    S
1377Rule    Jordan  1973    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1378Rule    Jordan  1974    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1379Rule    Jordan  1976    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
1380Rule    Jordan  1977    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1381Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1382Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1383Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S
1384Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1385Rule    Jordan  1986    1988    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S
1386Rule    Jordan  1986    1990    -       Oct     Fri>=1  0:00    0       -
1387Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S
1388Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S
1389Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S
1390Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
1391Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
1392Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1  0:00    0       -
1393Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S
1394Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15 0:00    0       -
1395Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15 0:00s   0       -
1396Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1397Rule    Jordan  1999    2002    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1398Rule    Jordan  2000    2001    -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S
1399Rule    Jordan  2002    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
1400Rule    Jordan  2003    only    -       Oct     24      0:00s   0       -
1401Rule    Jordan  2004    only    -       Oct     15      0:00s   0       -
1402Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1403Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1404Rule    Jordan  2013    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1405# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1406Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931
1407                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT
1408
1409
1410# Kazakhstan
1411
1412# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1413# Andrew Evtichov (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan
1414# stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk)
1415# and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones.
1416# Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time
1417# IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan.
1418
1419# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1420# German Iofis, ELSI, Almaty (2001-10-09) reports that Kazakhstan uses
1421# RussiaAsia rules, instead of switching at 00:00 as the IATA has it.
1422# Go with Shanks & Pottenger, who have them always using RussiaAsia rules.
1423# Also go with the following claims of Shanks & Pottenger:
1424#
1425# - Kazakhstan did not observe DST in 1991.
1426# - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.
1427# - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.
1428
1429# <a href="http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm">
1430# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11 (2005-03-21):
1431# </a>
1432# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
1433# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
1434# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
1435#
1436# From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
1437# ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
1438# was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
1439# two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
1440# closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
1441# same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtobe, Atyrau,
1442# Mangghystau, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
1443# everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
1444# de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
1445
1446#
1447# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1448#
1449# Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
1450Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
1451                        5:00    -       ALMT    1930 Jun 21 # Alma-Ata Time
1452                        6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT  1991
1453                        6:00    -       ALMT    1992
1454                        6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT  2005 Mar 15
1455                        6:00    -       ALMT
1456# Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.)
1457Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1458                        4:00    -       KIZT    1930 Jun 21 # Kizilorda Time
1459                        5:00    -       KIZT    1981 Apr  1
1460                        5:00    1:00    KIZST   1981 Oct  1
1461                        6:00    -       KIZT    1982 Apr  1
1462                        5:00 RussiaAsia KIZ%sT  1991
1463                        5:00    -       KIZT    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1464                        5:00    -       QYZT    1992 Jan 19 2:00
1465                        6:00 RussiaAsia QYZ%sT  2005 Mar 15
1466                        6:00    -       QYZT
1467# Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Akt'ubinsk)
1468Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1469                        4:00    -       AKTT    1930 Jun 21 # Aktyubinsk Time
1470                        5:00    -       AKTT    1981 Apr  1
1471                        5:00    1:00    AKTST   1981 Oct  1
1472                        6:00    -       AKTT    1982 Apr  1
1473                        5:00 RussiaAsia AKT%sT  1991
1474                        5:00    -       AKTT    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1475                        5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT  2005 Mar 15 # Aqtobe Time
1476                        5:00    -       AQTT
1477# Mangghystau
1478# Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
1479# so include time stamps before 1963.
1480Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1481                        4:00    -       FORT    1930 Jun 21 # Fort Shevchenko T
1482                        5:00    -       FORT    1963
1483                        5:00    -       SHET    1981 Oct  1 # Shevchenko Time
1484                        6:00    -       SHET    1982 Apr  1
1485                        5:00 RussiaAsia SHE%sT  1991
1486                        5:00    -       SHET    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1487                        5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT  1995 Mar lastSun 2:00 # Aqtau Time
1488                        4:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT  2005 Mar 15
1489                        5:00    -       AQTT
1490# West Kazakhstan
1491Zone    Asia/Oral       3:25:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk
1492                        4:00    -       URAT    1930 Jun 21 # Ural'sk time
1493                        5:00    -       URAT    1981 Apr  1
1494                        5:00    1:00    URAST   1981 Oct  1
1495                        6:00    -       URAT    1982 Apr  1
1496                        5:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT  1989 Mar 26 2:00
1497                        4:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT  1991
1498                        4:00    -       URAT    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1499                        4:00 RussiaAsia ORA%sT  2005 Mar 15 # Oral Time
1500                        5:00    -       ORAT
1501
1502# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
1503# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
1504
1505# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
1506# According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
1507# <http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml>
1508# Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
1509# to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
1510# From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
1511# Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
1512# From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
1513
1514# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1515Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7  0:00s   1:00    S
1516Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1517Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    S
1518Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       -
1519# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1520Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1521                        5:00    -       FRUT    1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
1522                        6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1523                        5:00    1:00    FRUST   1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence
1524                        5:00    Kyrgyz  KG%sT   2005 Aug 12    # Kyrgyzstan Time
1525                        6:00    -       KGT
1526
1527###############################################################################
1528
1529# Korea (North and South)
1530
1531# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10) in
1532# <http://www.koreaherald.co.kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2006/07/10/200607100012.asp>:
1533# The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy has already
1534# commissioned a research project [to reintroduce DST] and has said
1535# the system may begin as early as 2008....  Korea ran a daylight
1536# saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it during the 1950-53 Korean War.
1537
1538# From Shanks & Pottenger:
1539# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1540Rule    ROK     1960    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D
1541Rule    ROK     1960    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1542Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D
1543Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S
1544
1545# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1546Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1890
1547                        8:30    -       KST     1904 Dec
1548                        9:00    -       KST     1928
1549                        8:30    -       KST     1932
1550                        9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
1551                        8:00    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10
1552                        8:30    -       KST     1968 Oct
1553                        9:00    ROK     K%sT
1554Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1890
1555                        8:30    -       KST     1904 Dec
1556                        9:00    -       KST     1928
1557                        8:30    -       KST     1932
1558                        9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
1559                        8:00    -       KST     1961 Aug 10
1560                        9:00    -       KST
1561
1562###############################################################################
1563
1564# Kuwait
1565# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1566# From the Arab Times (2007-03-14):
1567# The Civil Service Commission (CSC) has approved a proposal forwarded
1568# by MP Ahmad Baqer on implementing the daylight saving time (DST) in
1569# Kuwait starting from April until the end of Sept this year, reports Al-Anba.
1570# <http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=9950>.
1571# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
1572# We don't know the details, or whether the approval means it'll happen,
1573# so for now we assume no DST.
1574Zone    Asia/Kuwait     3:11:56 -       LMT     1950
1575                        3:00    -       AST
1576
1577# Laos
1578# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1579Zone    Asia/Vientiane  6:50:24 -       LMT     1906 Jun  9 # or Viangchan
1580                        7:06:20 -       SMT     1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
1581                        7:00    -       ICT     1912 May
1582                        8:00    -       ICT     1931 May
1583                        7:00    -       ICT
1584
1585# Lebanon
1586# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1587Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
1588Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
1589Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S
1590Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       -
1591Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
1592Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       -
1593Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
1594Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
1595Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1596Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1597Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S
1598Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1599Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1600Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1601Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1602Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1603Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
1604Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
1605Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
1606Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1607Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       -
1608Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1609Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1610Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1611# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1612Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880
1613                        2:00    Lebanon EE%sT
1614
1615# Malaysia
1616# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1617Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    TS # one-Third Summer
1618Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       -
1619#
1620# peninsular Malaysia
1621# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
1622# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
1623# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1624Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
1625                        6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
1626                        7:00    -       MALT    1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
1627                        7:00    0:20    MALST   1936 Jan  1
1628                        7:20    -       MALT    1941 Sep  1
1629                        7:30    -       MALT    1942 Feb 16
1630                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
1631                        7:30    -       MALT    1982 Jan  1
1632                        8:00    -       MYT     # Malaysia Time
1633# Sabah & Sarawak
1634# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1635# The data here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945 and 1982
1636# transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
1637# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1638Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar
1639                        7:30    -       BORT    1933    # Borneo Time
1640                        8:00    NBorneo BOR%sT  1942 Feb 16
1641                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
1642                        8:00    -       BORT    1982 Jan  1
1643                        8:00    -       MYT
1644
1645# Maldives
1646# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1647Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880    # Male
1648                        4:54:00 -       MMT     1960    # Male Mean Time
1649                        5:00    -       MVT             # Maldives Time
1650
1651# Mongolia
1652
1653# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
1654# usno1995 and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World (2005-03)
1655# both say that it has just one.
1656
1657# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
1658# <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm">
1659# General Information Mongolia
1660# </a> (1999-09)
1661# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
1662# Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
1663# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
1664# eight hours."
1665
1666# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
1667# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
1668# being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
1669# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
1670# of implementation may have been different....
1671# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
1672# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
1673# Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij.
1674
1675# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
1676# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
1677# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
1678# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
1679# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
1680# is good enough for our purposes.
1681
1682# From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
1683# In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
1684# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
1685# there are three time zones.
1686#
1687# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-ulgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
1688# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khovsgol, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Tov,
1689#       Bayankhongor, Ovorkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Omnogovi
1690# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sukhbaatar
1691#
1692# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
1693
1694# From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
1695# Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
1696# It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
1697# September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
1698#
1699# From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
1700# For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
1701# Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
1702
1703# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
1704# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
1705# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
1706# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
1707# Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykanen (2005-05-16) reports that
1708# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
1709# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
1710# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
1711# He also found
1712# <http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&>
1713# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
1714# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
1715# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
1716# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sukhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
1717# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
1718# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
1719# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
1720
1721# From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
1722# Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
1723# They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
1724# http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
1725
1726# From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
1727# We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
1728# Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
1729# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
1730# database on this, e.g.:
1731#
1732# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026">
1733# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
1734# </a>
1735# <a href="http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx">
1736# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
1737# </a>
1738#
1739# both say GMT+08:00.
1740
1741# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
1742# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
1743# schedule here:
1744# <a href="http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112">
1745# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
1746# </a>
1747# (click the English flag for English)
1748#
1749# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbatar arrive
1750# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
1751# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khvod takes 2 hours in the Eastern
1752# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbatar and Khvod are
1753# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
1754# Ulaanbatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
1755
1756# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
1757# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
1758# XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
1759# was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
1760# this is almost surely wrong.
1761
1762# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1763Rule    Mongol  1983    1984    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S
1764Rule    Mongol  1983    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1765# Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
1766# but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM
1767# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
1768#
1769# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
1770# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sukhbaatar) took place
1771# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
1772# the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
1773# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
1774# in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
1775
1776Rule    Mongol  1985    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1777Rule    Mongol  1984    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1778# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
1779Rule    Mongol  2001    only    -       Apr     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
1780Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       -
1781Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
1782
1783# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1784# Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
1785Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug
1786                        6:00    -       HOVT    1978    # Hovd Time
1787                        7:00    Mongol  HOV%sT
1788# Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
1789Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug
1790                        7:00    -       ULAT    1978    # Ulaanbaatar Time
1791                        8:00    Mongol  ULA%sT
1792# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tuemen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
1793# Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
1794Zone    Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug
1795                        7:00    -       ULAT    1978
1796                        8:00    -       ULAT    1983 Apr
1797                        9:00    Mongol  CHO%sT  2008 Mar 31 # Choibalsan Time
1798                        8:00    Mongol  CHO%sT
1799
1800# Nepal
1801# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1802Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920
1803                        5:30    -       IST     1986
1804                        5:45    -       NPT     # Nepal Time
1805
1806# Oman
1807# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1808Zone    Asia/Muscat     3:54:20 -       LMT     1920
1809                        4:00    -       GST
1810
1811# Pakistan
1812
1813# From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
1814# I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
1815# TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
1816# and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
1817# told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
1818# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
1819
1820# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
1821# Jesper Norgaard found this URL:
1822# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
1823# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
1824# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
1825# Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
1826# 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
1827# but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
1828# it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday
1829# and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
1830# transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
1831
1832# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
1833# DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
1834# that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now.
1835
1836# From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
1837# According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
1838# there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
1839#
1840# ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
1841# Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
1842# decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
1843# one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
1844#
1845# The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
1846# shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
1847
1848# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
1849#
1850# Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
1851# on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
1852#
1853# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to help
1854# reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at 9pm and
1855# moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months.
1856# ...."
1857#
1858# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html">
1859# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
1860# </a>
1861# OR
1862# <a href="http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4">
1863# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
1864# </a>
1865
1866# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
1867# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
1868
1869# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
1870# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
1871# for another 2 months--plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
1872# instead of August 31.
1873#
1874# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html">
1875# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
1876# </a>
1877# OR
1878# <a href="http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html">
1879# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
1880# </a>
1881
1882# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
1883# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
1884# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
1885# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
1886# official working."
1887# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280">
1888# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
1889# </a>
1890#
1891# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
1892# introduce DST from April 15, 2009
1893#
1894# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
1895# April 08, 2009
1896# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
1897# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1">
1898# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
1899# </a>
1900#
1901# or
1902#
1903# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html">
1904# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
1905# </a>
1906#
1907# ....
1908# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
1909# advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
1910# conserve energy"
1911
1912# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
1913# "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
1914# Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
1915# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
1916# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
1917# this regard."
1918# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168">
1919# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
1920# </a>
1921
1922# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
1923# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
1924# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
1925# 1, 2009.
1926#
1927# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
1928# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2">
1929# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
1930# </a>
1931# or
1932# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm">
1933# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
1934# </a>
1935
1936# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
1937# Alexander Krivenyshev wrote:
1938# > According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
1939# > Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
1940# > 1, 2009.
1941#
1942# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
1943# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742">
1944# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
1945# </a>
1946# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
1947# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
1948# Monday."
1949#
1950# And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
1951# "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
1952# on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
1953# obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
1954#
1955# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
1956# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
1957# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html">
1958# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
1959# </a>
1960
1961# From Christoph Goehre (2009-10-01):
1962# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
1963# will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
1964
1965# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
1966# Steffen Thorsen wrote:
1967# > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
1968# > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
1969# >
1970# > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
1971# > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
1972# > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
1973# > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
1974# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
1975#
1976# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
1977# <a href="http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041">
1978# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
1979# </a>
1980#
1981# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
1982# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2">
1983# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
1984# </a>
1985
1986# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1987Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Apr     Sun>=2  0:01    1:00    S
1988Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:01    0       -
1989Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
1990Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
1991Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
1992Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
1993
1994# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1995Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907
1996                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
1997                        5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15
1998                        5:30    -       IST     1951 Sep 30
1999                        5:00    -       KART    1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time
2000                        5:00 Pakistan   PK%sT   # Pakistan Time
2001
2002# Palestine
2003
2004# From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
2005#
2006# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
2007# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
2008# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
2009#
2010# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
2011# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
2012# time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
2013# though.
2014#
2015# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
2016# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
2017# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
2018# Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
2019# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
2020# East Jerusalem.
2021#
2022# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
2023# for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
2024# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
2025# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
2026# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
2027#
2028# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
2029# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
2030# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
2031# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
2032# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
2033# Jordanian one).
2034#
2035# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
2036#
2037# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
2038# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
2039# Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
2040# West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
2041# Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
2042#
2043# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
2044# have one).
2045
2046# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2047# Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
2048# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
2049# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
2050# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
2051# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
2052# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
2053# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
2054# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
2055# to Palestine's rules.
2056
2057# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
2058# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
2059#
2060# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
2061# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
2062# one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
2063# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
2064
2065# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2066# Daoud Kuttab writes in
2067# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html">
2068# Holiday havoc
2069# </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
2070# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
2071# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
2072# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
2073# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
2074
2075# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
2076# Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
2077
2078# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
2079# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
2080# the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
2081# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
2082# earlier--the same goes for Jordan.
2083
2084# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
2085# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
2086# same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
2087# was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not
2088# able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
2089# Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
2090# the West Bank.
2091
2092# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
2093# according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
2094# http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
2095# > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
2096# > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn
2097# > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week.
2098# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
2099# because of the Ramadan.
2100
2101# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
2102# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
2103# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
2104
2105# From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
2106# My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
2107# the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
2108# surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree.
2109# For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
2110# the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
2111
2112# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2113# Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
2114#
2115# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
2116# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
2117#
2118# <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001">
2119# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
2120# </a>
2121# <a href="http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087">
2122# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
2123# </a>
2124# or
2125# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html">
2126# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
2127# </a>
2128
2129# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
2130# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
2131# government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
2132# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
2133#
2134# (in Arabic)
2135# <a href="http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850">
2136# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
2137# </a>
2138#
2139# or
2140# (English translation)
2141# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html">
2142# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
2143# </a>
2144
2145# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
2146# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
2147# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
2148#
2149# One news source:
2150# <a href="http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158">
2151# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
2152# </a>
2153# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
2154# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
2155# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
2156# 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
2157# minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
2158#
2159# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
2160# end date, we will keep this page updated:
2161# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html">
2162# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
2163# </a>
2164
2165# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
2166# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
2167#
2168# According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
2169# to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
2170#
2171# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
2172# (from Palestinian National Authority):
2173# <a href="http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
2174# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
2175# </a>
2176# or
2177# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html>
2178# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
2179# </a>
2180
2181# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
2182# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
2183# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
2184# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
2185#
2186# <a href="http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697">
2187# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
2188# </a>
2189# (in Arabic)
2190# or
2191# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html">
2192# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
2193# </a>
2194
2195# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
2196# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
2197# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
2198# noon though:
2199#
2200# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178">
2201# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
2202# </a>
2203# (Ma'an News Agency)
2204# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
2205# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
2206
2207# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
2208# According to several sources, including
2209# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795">
2210# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
2211# </a>
2212# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
2213# Gaza and the West Bank.
2214# Some more background info:
2215# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html">
2216# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
2217# </a>
2218
2219# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
2220# Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
2221# August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
2222# 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
2223# Ramadan.
2224#
2225# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217">
2226# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
2227# </a>
2228# Additional info:
2229# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html">
2230# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
2231# </a>
2232
2233# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
2234# According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
2235# "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
2236# move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
2237# Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
2238# The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
2239# the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
2240# ...
2241# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650">
2242# http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
2243# </a>
2244# or
2245# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html">
2246# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
2247# </a>
2248# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file.
2249
2250# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
2251# West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
2252# 00:00).
2253# So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
2254#
2255# Many sources, including:
2256# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808">
2257# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
2258# </a>
2259
2260# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2261# Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
2262# on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
2263# Some of many sources in Arabic:
2264# <a href="http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638">
2265# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
2266# </a>
2267#
2268# <a href="http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html">
2269# http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
2270# </a>
2271#
2272# Our brief summary:
2273# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html">
2274# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
2275# </a>
2276
2277# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
2278# The timeanddate article for 2012 says that "the end date has not yet been
2279# announced" and that "Last year, both...paused daylight saving time during...
2280# Ramadan. It is not yet known [for] 2012."
2281# For now, assume both switch back on the last Friday in September. XXX
2282
2283# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2284Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
2285Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2286Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
2287Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
2288Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
2289Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
2290
2291Rule Palestine  1999    2005    -       Apr     Fri>=15 0:00    1:00    S
2292Rule Palestine  1999    2003    -       Oct     Fri>=15 0:00    0       -
2293Rule Palestine  2004    only    -       Oct      1      1:00    0       -
2294Rule Palestine  2005    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2295Rule Palestine  2006    2008    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2296Rule Palestine  2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
2297Rule Palestine  2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=8  2:00    0       -
2298Rule Palestine  2008    only    -       Aug     lastFri 0:00    0       -
2299Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2300Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Sep     Fri>=1  2:00    0       -
2301Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Mar     lastSat 0:01    1:00    S
2302Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       -
2303
2304# From Arthur David Olson (2011-09-20):
2305# 2011 transitions per http://www.timeanddate.com as of 2011-09-20.
2306# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-12):
2307# 2012 transitions per http://www.timeanddate.com as of 2012-10-12.
2308
2309# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2310Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2311                        2:00    Zion    EET     1948 May 15
2312                        2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2313                        2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2314                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2315                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Apr  2 12:01
2316                        2:00    1:00    EEST    2011 Aug  1
2317                        2:00    -       EET     2012 Mar 30
2318                        2:00    1:00    EEST    2012 Sep 21 1:00
2319                        2:00    -       EET
2320
2321Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2322                        2:00    Zion    EET     1948 May 15
2323                        2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2324                        2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2325                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2326                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug
2327                        2:00    1:00    EEST    2008 Sep
2328                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Apr  1 12:01
2329                        2:00    1:00    EEST    2011 Aug  1
2330                        2:00    -       EET     2011 Aug 30
2331                        2:00    1:00    EEST    2011 Sep 30 3:00
2332                        2:00    -       EET     2012 Mar 30
2333                        2:00    1:00    EEST    2012 Sep 21 1:00
2334                        2:00    -       EET
2335
2336# Paracel Is
2337# no information
2338
2339# Philippines
2340# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Claveria, governor-general of the
2341# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
2342# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01.  Robert H. van Gent has a
2343# transcript of the decree in <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/idl/idl.htm>.
2344# The rest of the data are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2345
2346# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
2347# Tomorrow's Manila Standard reports that the Philippines Department of
2348# Trade and Industry is considering adopting DST this June when the
2349# rainy season begins.  See
2350# <http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006>.
2351# For now, we'll ignore this, since it's not definite and we lack details.
2352#
2353# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
2354# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
2355# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
2356# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
2357# but no details]
2358
2359# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2360Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    S
2361Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       -
2362Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    S
2363Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       -
2364Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    S
2365Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
2366# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2367Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
2368                        8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11
2369                        8:00    Phil    PH%sT   1942 May
2370                        9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov
2371                        8:00    Phil    PH%sT
2372
2373# Qatar
2374# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2375Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920    # Al Dawhah / Doha
2376                        4:00    -       GST     1972 Jun
2377                        3:00    -       AST
2378
2379# Saudi Arabia
2380# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2381Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1950
2382                        3:00    -       AST
2383
2384# Singapore
2385# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2386# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
2387# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2388Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
2389                        6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
2390                        7:00    -       MALT    1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
2391                        7:00    0:20    MALST   1936 Jan  1
2392                        7:20    -       MALT    1941 Sep  1
2393                        7:30    -       MALT    1942 Feb 16
2394                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
2395                        7:30    -       MALT    1965 Aug  9 # independence
2396                        7:30    -       SGT     1982 Jan  1 # Singapore Time
2397                        8:00    -       SGT
2398
2399# Spratly Is
2400# no information
2401
2402# Sri Lanka
2403# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
2404# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
2405# (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24,
2406# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
2407# reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
2408# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.''
2409#
2410# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
2411# by Shamindra in
2412# <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net">
2413# Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26)
2414# </a>:
2415# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
2416# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
2417
2418# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
2419# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
2420# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
2421# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
2422
2423# From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
2424# <http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML>
2425# [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
2426# kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
2427# Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
2428# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
2429# People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
2430# as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
2431
2432# From K Sethu (2006-04-25):
2433# I think the abbreviation LKT originated from the world of computers at
2434# the time of or subsequent to the time zone changes by SL Government
2435# twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
2436# agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
2437#
2438# I recollect before the recent change the government annoucemments
2439# mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
2440# Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
2441#
2442# If we look at Sri Lanka Department of Government's "Official News
2443# Website of Sri Lanka" ... http://www.news.lk/ we can see that they
2444# use SLT as abbreviation in time stamp at the beginning of each news
2445# item....
2446#
2447# Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
2448# adminsitrators.  In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
2449# nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
2450# known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
2451# slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
2452#
2453# But if indeed our government has adopted SLT as standard abbreviation
2454# (that we have not known so far) then  it is better that it be used for
2455# all computers.
2456
2457# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
2458# One possibility is that we wait for a bit for the dust to settle down
2459# and then see what people actually say in practice.
2460
2461# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2462Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880
2463                        5:19:32 -       MMT     1906    # Moratuwa Mean Time
2464                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Jan  5
2465                        5:30    0:30    IHST    1942 Sep
2466                        5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 16 2:00
2467                        5:30    -       IST     1996 May 25 0:00
2468                        6:30    -       LKT     1996 Oct 26 0:30
2469                        6:00    -       LKT     2006 Apr 15 0:30
2470                        5:30    -       IST
2471
2472# Syria
2473# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2474Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    S
2475Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0       -
2476Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S
2477Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2478Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
2479Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2480Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2481Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2482Rule    Syria   1966    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    S
2483Rule    Syria   1966    1976    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2484Rule    Syria   1967    1978    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
2485Rule    Syria   1977    1978    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       -
2486Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Apr     9       2:00    1:00    S
2487Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2488Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Feb     16      2:00    1:00    S
2489Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Oct     9       2:00    0       -
2490Rule    Syria   1987    only    -       Mar     1       2:00    1:00    S
2491Rule    Syria   1987    1988    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       -
2492Rule    Syria   1988    only    -       Mar     15      2:00    1:00    S
2493Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
2494Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2495Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Apr     1       2:00    1:00    S
2496Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2497Rule    Syria   1991    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2498Rule    Syria   1991    1992    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2499Rule    Syria   1992    only    -       Apr      8      0:00    1:00    S
2500Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2501Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
2502# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
2503# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
2504# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
2505# (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
2506# for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
2507# except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
2508Rule    Syria   1994    1996    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2509Rule    Syria   1994    2005    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2510Rule    Syria   1997    1998    -       Mar     lastMon 0:00    1:00    S
2511Rule    Syria   1999    2006    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2512# From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
2513# According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
2514# this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
2515Rule    Syria   2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
2516# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
2517# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
2518# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
2519Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2520# From Jesper Norgard (2007-10-27):
2521# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
2522# not take place 1.st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1.st November at 24:00 or
2523# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sence than
2524# having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
2525# weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
2526# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
2527#
2528# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
2529# Jesper Norgaard Welen wrote:
2530#
2531# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
2532# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
2533#
2534# I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
2535# http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
2536#
2537# which using Google's translate tools says:
2538# Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
2539# identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
2540# minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
2541Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Nov      Fri>=1 0:00    0       -
2542
2543# From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
2544# For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
2545# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so...This is the data IATA
2546# are now using:
2547# Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
2548# Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
2549# Variation
2550# Syrian Arab
2551# Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300
2552#                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300
2553#                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300
2554
2555# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
2556# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
2557# Agency (SANA)...
2558# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm">
2559# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
2560# </a>...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
2561# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
2562# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
2563# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
2564# shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
2565
2566# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
2567# My buest guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
2568# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
2569# compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
2570# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
2571
2572# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
2573# Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
2574# according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
2575#
2576# The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
2577# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
2578# clocks back 60 minutes).
2579#
2580# <a href="http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm">
2581# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
2582# </a>
2583
2584# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
2585# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
2586# two examples:
2587#
2588# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm">
2589# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
2590# </a>
2591# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
2592# <a href="http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209">
2593# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
2594# </a>
2595# (Arabic, gov-site)
2596#
2597# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
2598#
2599# Our summary
2600# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html">
2601# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
2602# </a>
2603
2604# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
2605# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
2606# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
2607# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
2608# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm">
2609# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
2610# </a>
2611
2612# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
2613# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
2614# Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
2615# something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
2616
2617# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
2618# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
2619# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
2620# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
2621# <a href="http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421">
2622# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
2623# </a>
2624
2625# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2626# Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
2627# (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
2628#
2629# From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
2630# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm">
2631# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
2632# </a>
2633#
2634# Our brief summary:
2635# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html">
2636# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
2637# </a>
2638
2639# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
2640# Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
2641
2642Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S
2643Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2644Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2645Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S
2646Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2647Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       -
2648
2649# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2650Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920    # Dimashq
2651                        2:00    Syria   EE%sT
2652
2653# Tajikistan
2654# From Shanks & Pottenger.
2655# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2656Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2657                        5:00    -       DUST    1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
2658                        6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2659                        5:00    1:00    DUSST   1991 Sep  9 2:00s
2660                        5:00    -       TJT                 # Tajikistan Time
2661
2662# Thailand
2663# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2664Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880
2665                        6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
2666                        7:00    -       ICT
2667
2668# Turkmenistan
2669# From Shanks & Pottenger.
2670# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2671Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
2672                        4:00    -       ASHT    1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
2673                        5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00
2674                        4:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Oct 27 # independence
2675                        4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT   1992 Jan 19 2:00
2676                        5:00    -       TMT
2677
2678# United Arab Emirates
2679# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2680Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920
2681                        4:00    -       GST
2682
2683# Uzbekistan
2684# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2685Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2686                        4:00    -       SAMT    1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
2687                        5:00    -       SAMT    1981 Apr  1
2688                        5:00    1:00    SAMST   1981 Oct  1
2689                        6:00    -       TAST    1982 Apr  1 # Tashkent Time
2690                        5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence
2691                        5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992
2692                        5:00    -       UZT
2693Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2694                        5:00    -       TAST    1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
2695                        6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00
2696                        5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence
2697                        5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992
2698                        5:00    -       UZT
2699
2700# Vietnam
2701
2702# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
2703# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Min City";
2704# we use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
2705
2706# From Shanks & Pottenger:
2707# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2708Zone    Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh        7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jun  9
2709                        7:06:20 -       SMT     1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
2710                        7:00    -       ICT     1912 May
2711                        8:00    -       ICT     1931 May
2712                        7:00    -       ICT
2713
2714# Yemen
2715# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2716Zone    Asia/Aden       3:00:48 -       LMT     1950
2717                        3:00    -       AST
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