source: appstream-generator/contrib/setup/js_tmp/Flot/examples/axes-time-zones/tz/australasia @ 4841

Last change on this file since 4841 was 4841, checked in by Juanma, 2 years ago

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1# <pre>
2# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
3# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
4
5# This file also includes Pacific islands.
6
7# Notes are at the end of this file
8
9###############################################################################
10
11# Australia
12
13# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
14
15# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
16Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    -
17Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       -
18Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    -
19Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       -
20Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    -
21Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
22Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    -
23# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
24# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
25# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
26
27# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
28# Northern Territory
29Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
30                         9:00   -       CST     1899 May
31                         9:30   Aus     CST
32# Western Australia
33#
34# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
35Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
36Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
37Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
38Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
39Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    -
40Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
41Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    -
42Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
43Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
44Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
45                         8:00   Aus     WST     1943 Jul
46                         8:00   AW      WST
47Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec
48                         8:45   Aus     CWST    1943 Jul
49                         8:45   AW      CWST
50
51# Queensland
52#
53# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
54# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
55# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
56# Queensland ceased to.
57#
58# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
59# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
60# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
61# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
62# so use Lindeman.
63#
64# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
65Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
66Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
67Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
68Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
69Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
70Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
71Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895
72                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971
73                        10:00   AQ      EST
74Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895
75                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971
76                        10:00   AQ      EST     1992 Jul
77                        10:00   Holiday EST
78
79# South Australia
80# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
81Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
82Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    -
83Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
84Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       -
85Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
86Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       -
87Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       -
88Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       -
89Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       -
90Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       -
91Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
92Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       -
93Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
94Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
95Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    -
96# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
97Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
98                        9:00    -       CST     1899 May
99                        9:30    Aus     CST     1971
100                        9:30    AS      CST
101
102# Tasmania
103#
104# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
105# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
106# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
107#
108# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
109Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    -
110Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
111Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
112Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00s   0       -
113Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
114Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
115Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
116Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
117Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    -
118Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       -
119Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22 2:00s   1:00    -
120Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
121Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    -
122Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
123Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
124Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    -
125Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
126Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
127Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
128# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
129Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
130                        10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00
131                        10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb
132                        10:00   Aus     EST     1967
133                        10:00   AT      EST
134Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
135                        10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00
136                        10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb
137                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971 Jul
138                        10:00   AT      EST
139
140# Victoria
141# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
142Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
143Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
144Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
145Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       -
146Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    -
147Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
148Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
149Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
150Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
151Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
152Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
153Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
154Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
155Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    -
156# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
157Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
158                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971
159                        10:00   AV      EST
160
161# New South Wales
162# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
163Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
164Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       -
165Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
166Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
167Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
168Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       -
169Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    -
170Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
171Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
172Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
173Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
174Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
175Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
176Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
177Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
178Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    -
179# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
180Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
181                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971
182                        10:00   AN      EST
183Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
184                        10:00   -       EST     1896 Aug 23
185                        9:00    -       CST     1899 May
186                        9:30    Aus     CST     1971
187                        9:30    AN      CST     2000
188                        9:30    AS      CST
189
190# Lord Howe Island
191# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
192Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
193Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00    0       -
194Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
195Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00    0       -
196Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    -
197Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
198Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00    0       -
199Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
200Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
201Rule    LH      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
202Rule    LH      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    0       -
203Rule    LH      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
204Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    0       -
205Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0:30    -
206Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb
207                        10:00   -       EST     1981 Mar
208                        10:30   LH      LHST
209
210# Australian miscellany
211#
212# Ashmore Is, Cartier
213# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
214# no times are set
215#
216# Coral Sea Is
217# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
218# no times are set
219#
220# Macquarie
221# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
222# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
223# like Australia/Hobart
224
225# Christmas
226# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
227Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
228                        7:00    -       CXT     # Christmas Island Time
229
230# Cook Is
231# From Shanks & Pottenger:
232# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
233Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    HS
234Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       -
235Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HS
236# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
237Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901            # Avarua
238                        -10:30  -       CKT     1978 Nov 12     # Cook Is Time
239                        -10:00  Cook    CK%sT
240
241# Cocos
242# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
243# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
244# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
245Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
246                        6:30    -       CCT     # Cocos Islands Time
247
248# Fiji
249# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
250# According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
251# from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
252#
253# "Daylight savings to commence this month"
254# <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
255# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
256# </a>
257# or
258# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
259# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
260# </a>
261
262# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
263# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
264# amendments:
265# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
266# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
267# </a>
268
269# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
270# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
271# 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
272# The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
273# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
274#
275# Official source:
276# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
277# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
278# </a>
279#
280# A bit more background info here:
281# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
282# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
283# </a>
284
285# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
286# According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
287# weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
288# Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
289# Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
290# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
291# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
292# </a>
293# or
294# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html">
295# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
296# </a>
297
298# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
299# Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
300# assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
301#
302# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
303# www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
304# </a>
305# which says
306# Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
307# advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
308# 2am on February 26 next year.
309
310# From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
311# Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
312# Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
313#
314# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
315# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
316# </a>
317# states:
318#
319# The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
320# has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
321# The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
322# on the  23rd of October, 2011.
323
324# From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
325# The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
326# today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
327# October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
328# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155
329#
330# From Paul Eggert (2012-08-31):
331# For now, guess a pattern of the penultimate Sundays in October and January.
332
333# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
334Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S
335Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
336Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    S
337Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
338Rule    Fiji    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=18 2:00    1:00    S
339Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       -
340Rule    Fiji    2012    max     -       Jan     Sun>=18 3:00    0       -
341# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
342Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:53:40 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26     # Suva
343                        12:00   Fiji    FJ%sT   # Fiji Time
344
345# French Polynesia
346# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
347Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Rikitea
348                         -9:00  -       GAMT    # Gambier Time
349Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
350                         -9:30  -       MART    # Marquesas Time
351Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Papeete
352                        -10:00  -       TAHT    # Tahiti Time
353# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
354# it is uninhabited.
355
356# Guam
357# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
358Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
359                         9:39:00 -      LMT     1901            # Agana
360                        10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23     # Guam
361                        10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
362
363# Kiribati
364# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
365Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901            # Bairiki
366                         12:00  -       GILT             # Gilbert Is Time
367Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
368                        -12:00  -       PHOT    1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
369                        -11:00  -       PHOT    1995
370                         13:00  -       PHOT
371Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
372                        -10:40  -       LINT    1979 Oct # Line Is Time
373                        -10:00  -       LINT    1995
374                         14:00  -       LINT
375
376# N Mariana Is
377# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
378Zone Pacific/Saipan     -14:17:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
379                         9:43:00 -      LMT     1901
380                         9:00   -       MPT     1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
381                        10:00   -       MPT     2000 Dec 23
382                        10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
383
384# Marshall Is
385# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
386Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901
387                        11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
388                        12:00   -       MHT
389Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901
390                        11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct
391                        -12:00  -       KWAT    1993 Aug 20     # Kwajalein Time
392                        12:00   -       MHT
393
394# Micronesia
395# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
396Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901
397                        10:00   -       CHUT                    # Chuuk Time
398Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kolonia
399                        11:00   -       PONT                    # Pohnpei Time
400Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901
401                        11:00   -       KOST    1969 Oct        # Kosrae Time
402                        12:00   -       KOST    1999
403                        11:00   -       KOST
404
405# Nauru
406# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
407Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15     # Uaobe
408                        11:30   -       NRT     1942 Mar 15     # Nauru Time
409                        9:00    -       JST     1944 Aug 15
410                        11:30   -       NRT     1979 May
411                        12:00   -       NRT
412
413# New Caledonia
414# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
415Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S
416Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
417Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    S
418# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
419Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
420# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
421Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13
422                        11:00   NC      NC%sT
423
424
425###############################################################################
426
427# New Zealand
428
429# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
430Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
431Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
432Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00    0:30    S
433Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00    0       M
434Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
435Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
436Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
437# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
438# convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
439Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D
440Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:45s   1:00    D
441Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
442Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       S
443Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
444Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
445Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
446Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:45s   0       S
447Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00s   1:00    D
448Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:45s   1:00    D
449Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D
450Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:45s   1:00    D
451Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S
452Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:45s   0       S
453Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
454Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
455Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
456Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:45s   0       S
457# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
458Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
459                        11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
460                        12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
461Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1957 Jan  1
462                        12:45   Chatham CHA%sT
463
464
465# Auckland Is
466# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
467# and scientific personnel have wintered
468
469# Campbell I
470# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
471# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
472# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
473# was probably like Pacific/Auckland
474
475###############################################################################
476
477
478# Niue
479# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
480Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901            # Alofi
481                        -11:20  -       NUT     1951    # Niue Time
482                        -11:30  -       NUT     1978 Oct 1
483                        -11:00  -       NUT
484
485# Norfolk
486# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
487Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kingston
488                        11:12   -       NMT     1951    # Norfolk Mean Time
489                        11:30   -       NFT             # Norfolk Time
490
491# Palau (Belau)
492# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
493Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901            # Koror
494                        9:00    -       PWT     # Palau Time
495
496# Papua New Guinea
497# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
498Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
499                        9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895    # Port Moresby Mean Time
500                        10:00   -       PGT             # Papua New Guinea Time
501
502# Pitcairn
503# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
504Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901            # Adamstown
505                        -8:30   -       PNT     1998 Apr 27 00:00
506                        -8:00   -       PST     # Pitcairn Standard Time
507
508# American Samoa
509Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
510                        -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
511                        -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time
512                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome
513                        -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering
514                        -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa
515
516# Samoa
517
518# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
519# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
520# the following info:
521#
522# "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
523# commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
524# Sunday of April 2011."
525#
526# Background info:
527# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
528# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
529# </a>
530#
531# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
532# contain any dates:
533# <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
534# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
535# </a>
536
537# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
538# Please see
539# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
540# http://www.mcil.gov.ws
541# </a>,
542# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
543# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
544# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
545# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
546
547# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
548# I believe this will be posted shortly on the website
549# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
550# www.mcil.gov.ws
551# </a>
552#
553# PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
554#
555# Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision,
556# businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight
557# saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11).
558#
559# The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes
560# the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011,
561# then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be
562# adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
563#
564# Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,
565# INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011
566
567# From David Zuelke (2011-05-09):
568# Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
569#
570# <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963">
571# http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
572# </a>
573
574# From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17):
575# I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law
576# Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she
577# confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather
578# than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But
579# the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa
580# changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13:
581#
582# International Date Line Bill 2011
583#
584# AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make
585# consequential amendments to the position of the International Date
586# Line, and for related purposes.
587#
588# BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament
589# assembled as follows:
590#
591# 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the
592# International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act
593# commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3)
594# Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State.
595#
596# [snip]
597#
598# 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any
599# other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the
600# time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time.
601#
602# 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa
603# standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated
604# Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's
605# time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and
606# instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to
607# Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this
608# Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that
609# it defines Samoa standard time....
610
611# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
612# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html">
613# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
614# </a>
615#
616# here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
617#
618# DST
619# Year  End     Time    Start   Time
620# 2011  - - -   - - -   24 September    3:00am to 4:00am
621# 2012  01 April        4:00am to 3:00am        - - -   - - -
622#
623# Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
624# Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
625# Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
626#
627# Clarification by Tim Parenti (2012-01-03):
628# Although Samoa has used Daylight Saving Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012
629# seasons, there is not yet any indication that this trend will continue on
630# a regular basis. For now, we have explicitly listed the transitions below.
631#
632# From Nicky (2012-09-10):
633# Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
634# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013.
635#
636# Please find link below for more information.
637# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
638#
639# That publication also includes dates for Summer of 2013/4 as well
640# which give the impression of a pattern in selecting dates for the
641# future, so for now, we will guess this will continue.
642
643# Western Samoa
644# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
645Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       D
646Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  4:00    0       -
647# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
648Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
649                        -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
650                        -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time
651                        -11:00  -       WST     2010 Sep 26
652                        -11:00  1:00    WSDT    2011 Apr 2 4:00
653                        -11:00  -       WST     2011 Sep 24 3:00
654                        -11:00  1:00    WSDT    2011 Dec 30
655                         13:00  1:00    WSDT    2012 Apr Sun>=1 4:00
656                         13:00  WS      WS%sT
657
658# Solomon Is
659# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
660# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
661Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Honiara
662                        11:00   -       SBT     # Solomon Is Time
663
664# Tokelau Is
665#
666# From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
667# A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
668# December 31 this year ...
669#
670# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
671# ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
672# about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
673# Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
674# actually was to UTC-11 back then.
675#
676# From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
677# A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
678# Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
679# <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
680# was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
681# are off by an hour starting in 1901.
682
683# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
684Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
685                        -11:00  -       TKT 2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time
686                        13:00   -       TKT
687
688# Tonga
689# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
690Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    S
691Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
692Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S
693Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
694# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
695Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
696                        12:20   -       TOT     1941 # Tonga Time
697                        13:00   -       TOT     1999
698                        13:00   Tonga   TO%sT
699
700# Tuvalu
701# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
702Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
703                        12:00   -       TVT     # Tuvalu Time
704
705
706# US minor outlying islands
707
708# Howland, Baker
709# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
710# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
711# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
712# uninhabited thereafter.
713# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
714# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
715# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
716# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
717# until they were abandoned after the war.
718
719# Jarvis
720# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
721# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
722# uninhabited thereafter.
723# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
724
725# Johnston
726# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
727Zone Pacific/Johnston   -10:00  -       HST
728
729# Kingman
730# uninhabited
731
732# Midway
733#
734# From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
735# [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
736# published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
737# reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
738# "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
739# flights to Chicago and the US East Coast.  As it uses some time zone
740# designations that I've never seen before:....
741# Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I.   H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
742#  "   3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A  "
743#
744Zone Pacific/Midway     -11:49:28 -     LMT     1901
745                        -11:00  -       NST     1956 Jun  3
746                        -11:00  1:00    NDT     1956 Sep  2
747                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome
748                        -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering
749                        -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa
750
751# Palmyra
752# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
753
754# Wake
755# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
756Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
757                        12:00   -       WAKT    # Wake Time
758
759
760# Vanuatu
761# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
762Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    S
763Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23 0:00    0       -
764Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    S
765Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    S
766Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23 0:00    0       -
767Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    S
768# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
769Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13             # Vila
770                        11:00   Vanuatu VU%sT   # Vanuatu Time
771
772# Wallis and Futuna
773# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
774Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
775                        12:00   -       WFT     # Wallis & Futuna Time
776
777###############################################################################
778
779# NOTES
780
781# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
782# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
783# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
784
785# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
786# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
787# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
788# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
789#
790# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
791# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
792# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
793# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
794# of the IATA's data after 1990.
795#
796# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
797# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
798#
799# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
800# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
801# I found in the UCLA library.
802#
803# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
804# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
805#
806# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
807# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
808# Corrections are welcome!
809#               std dst
810#               LMT     Local Mean Time
811#         8:00  WST WST Western Australia
812#         8:45  CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
813#         9:00  JST     Japan
814#         9:30  CST CST Central Australia
815#        10:00  EST EST Eastern Australia
816#        10:00  ChST    Chamorro
817#        10:30  LHST LHST Lord Howe*
818#        11:30  NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
819#        12:00  NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
820#        12:45  CHAST CHADT Chatham*
821#       -11:00  SST     Samoa
822#       -10:00  HST     Hawaii
823#       - 8:00  PST     Pitcairn*
824#
825# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
826# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
827
828###############################################################################
829
830# Australia
831
832# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
833# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
834# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
835# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
836
837# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
838# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
839# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
840# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
841
842# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
843# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
844# It is called `summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
845# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
846# abbreviation does _not_ change...
847# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
848# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
849# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
850# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
851# time'.
852# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
853# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
854# or `Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
855# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
856# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
857# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
858# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
859
860# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
861# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
862#       CST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
863#       WST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
864#       EST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
865
866# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
867# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
868# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
869# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
870# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
871
872# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
873# versus "AEST" etc.:
874#
875# I see the following points of dispute:
876#
877# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
878#
879#   Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
880#   Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
881#   operation of software.  We have other instances of ambiguity
882#   (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
883#   Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
884#   In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
885#   abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
886#   think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
887#
888#   On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
889#   abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion.  This is
890#   particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
891#   time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
892#
893# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
894#
895#   Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
896#   many other countries.  We Americans are currently disagreeing about
897#   which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
898#   Time, for example.
899#
900#   Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
901#   refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
902#   tiebreaker.
903#
904# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
905#   Summer Time"?  Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
906#   the word "Australian"?
907#
908#   My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
909#   common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
910#   popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
911#   often than not.  I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
912#   following count of page hits:
913#
914#     1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
915#       971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
916#       613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
917#       127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
918#
919#   Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
920#   particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
921#   say.  The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
922#   Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
923#
924#   For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
925#   ambiguity.  Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
926#   many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones.  But here
927#   are the hit counts anyway:
928#
929#     161,304 "EST" and domain:au
930#      25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
931#      18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
932#      10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
933#
934#      14,538 "CST" and domain:au
935#       5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
936#         176 "ACST" and domain:au
937#          29 "ACDT" and domain:au
938#
939#       7,539 "WST" and domain:au
940#          68 "AWST" and domain:au
941#
942#   This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
943#   practice.  The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
944#   the ambiguities involved.
945#
946# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
947#
948#   If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
949#   against.  One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
950#   saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
951#   understood in Australia.
952
953# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
954# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
955# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
956# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
957# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
958# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
959# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
960
961# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
962#
963# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
964# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
965# relevant entries in this database.
966#
967# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
968# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
969# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
970# </a>
971# ACT
972# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
973# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
974# </a>
975# SA
976# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
977# Standard Time Act, 1898
978# </a>
979
980# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
981# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
982# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
983# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
984# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
985#
986# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
987# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
988# to extend DST together in 2006.
989# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
990# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
991# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
992# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
993# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
994# allude to it.
995# But not Queensland
996# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
997
998# Northern Territory
999
1000# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1001# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
1002# #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1003# #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
1004# ...
1005# Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
1006
1007# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1008# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1009# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
1010
1011# Western Australia
1012
1013# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1014# #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
1015# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1016# #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
1017# #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
1018# #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
1019# #     before reaching parliament.
1020# ...
1021# Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST
1022# ...
1023# Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1024# Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       W
1025# Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1026# Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       W
1027
1028# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1029# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1030# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
1031
1032# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
1033# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
1034# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
1035# work at 9.00am.)
1036# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
1037# everybody again.
1038
1039# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1040# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
1041# it matches what was used in the past.
1042
1043# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
1044# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
1045# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
1046# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
1047
1048# Queensland
1049# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1050# #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
1051# #                                             [ Dec 1990 ]
1052# ...
1053# Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST
1054# ...
1055# Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1056# Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E
1057# Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1058# Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       E
1059
1060# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
1061# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
1062# October 1989).
1063
1064# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1065# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1066# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1067# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1068
1069# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
1070# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
1071# end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
1072# me.)
1073
1074# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
1075# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
1076# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
1077# ...
1078# Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1079# Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       S
1080# ...
1081
1082# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1083# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
1084
1085# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
1086# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
1087# WA are trialing DST for three years.
1088# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
1089
1090# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
1091# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
1092# southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
1093# Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
1094# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
1095# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
1096# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
1097# Australia and Western Australia....
1098#
1099# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
1100# This is confirmed by the section entitled
1101# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
1102# <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
1103#
1104# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
1105# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1106# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1107# coast of the continent.
1108#
1109# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1110# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1111# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1112# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1113# the largest population centre in this zone....
1114#
1115# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1116# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1117# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1118# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1119#
1120# (2006-12-09):
1121# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1122# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1123# of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1124# before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1125
1126# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1127# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1128# introduction of standard time in 1895.
1129
1130
1131# southeast Australia
1132#
1133# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1134# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1135# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1136# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1137
1138
1139# South Australia
1140
1141# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1142# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1143# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1144# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1145
1146# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1147# #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
1148# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1149# ...
1150# Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST
1151# ...
1152# Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1153# Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       C
1154# Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 3:00    0       C
1155# Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       C
1156
1157# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
1158# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
1159# contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
1160# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
1161
1162# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
1163# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
1164# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
1165# numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
1166# is on...
1167
1168# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
1169# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1170# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1171# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1172
1173# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1174# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1175# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1176# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1177
1178# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
1179# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1180# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1181# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1182
1183# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1184# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1185
1186# Tasmania
1187
1188# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1189# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1190# #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1191# #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1192
1193# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1194# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1195# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1196# (but nothing new about that).
1197
1198# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1199# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1200# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1201# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1202# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1203# instead of the first Sunday in October.
1204
1205# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1206# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1207
1208# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1209# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1210
1211# Victoria
1212
1213# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1214# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1215# #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1216# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1217
1218# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1219# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1220# interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
1221# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1222# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1223# in Melbourne, Australia.
1224#
1225# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1226# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1227# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1228# fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1229# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1230# expected time.
1231#
1232# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1233# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1234# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
1235# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1236#
1237# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1238# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1239
1240# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1241# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1242
1243# New South Wales
1244
1245# From Arthur David Olson:
1246# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
1247# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
1248# who notes:
1249#       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1250#       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
1251#       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1252#       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1253#       legislation.  This is very important to understand.
1254#       I have researched New South Wales time only...
1255
1256# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
1257# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1258# October in 2000.  [See: Matthew Moore,
1259# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
1260# Two months more daylight saving
1261# </a>
1262# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
1263
1264# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1265# See the following official NSW source:
1266# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
1267# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1268# </a>
1269#
1270# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1271# daylight saving next year.  See:
1272# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
1273# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1274# </a> (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1275#
1276# Victoria will following NSW.  See:
1277# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
1278# Vic to extend daylight saving
1279# </a> (1999-07-28).
1280#
1281# However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
1282# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
1283# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
1284# </a> (1999-07-19).
1285#
1286# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
1287# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
1288# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1289# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1290# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1291# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1292# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1293# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1294# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
1295#
1296# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
1297# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
1298# Broken Hill to be behind the times
1299# </a> (1999-07-21).
1300
1301# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1302# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1303# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1304
1305# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1306# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1307# towns to use Queensland time.
1308
1309# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1310# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1311
1312# Yancowinna
1313
1314# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1315# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1316
1317# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1318# # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1319# #                                     [ Dec 1990 ]
1320# ...
1321# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1322# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1323# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1324# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1325# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1326# # presently available.
1327# Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST
1328# ...
1329# Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1330# Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C
1331# [followed by other Rules]
1332
1333# Lord Howe Island
1334
1335# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1336# LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
1337#                                       [ Dec 1990 ]
1338# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1339# hour ahead of NSW time.
1340
1341# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1342# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1343# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
1344# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1345# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1346# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1347# instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
1348# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1349# arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1350# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1351
1352# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1353# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1354# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1355# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1356# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1357# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1358
1359# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1360# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1361# Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
1362
1363# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1364# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1365
1366# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1367# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1368# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1369# summer (southern hemisphere).
1370#
1371# From
1372# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
1373# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1374# </a>
1375# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1376# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1377# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1378# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1379# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1380# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1381# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1382#
1383# We have a wrap-up here:
1384# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
1385# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1386# </a>
1387###############################################################################
1388
1389# New Zealand
1390
1391# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1392# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1393# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1394# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1395# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1396
1397# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1398# # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1399# #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
1400# #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
1401# #                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1402# ...
1403# Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1404# Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D
1405# Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       S
1406# Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S
1407# ...
1408# Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand
1409# Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1410
1411# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1412# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1413# rather than the October 1 value.
1414
1415# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
1416# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1417# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
1418# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1419# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1420# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1421#
1422# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1423# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1424# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
1425# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
1426#
1427# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1428# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1429# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
1430
1431# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1432# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1433# first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1434# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1435# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1436
1437###############################################################################
1438
1439
1440# Fiji
1441
1442# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1443# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1444# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1445
1446# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1447# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1448# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1449# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1450
1451# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1452# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1453
1454# From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
1455# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1456# improve productivity and reduce road accidents.  But correspondents say it
1457# also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
1458# islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
1459# millenium.
1460
1461# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1462# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1463
1464# Johnston
1465
1466# Johnston data is from usno1995.
1467
1468
1469# Kiribati
1470
1471# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1472# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1473# ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
1474# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1475
1476
1477# Kwajalein
1478
1479# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1480# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1481# 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1482# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1483# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1484
1485
1486# N Mariana Is, Guam
1487
1488# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1489# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
1490# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1491# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1492# see Asia/Manila.
1493
1494# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1495# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1496# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1497# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1498
1499
1500# Micronesia
1501
1502# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1503# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
1504# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
1505#
1506# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1507# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1508
1509# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1510# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1511# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
1512# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
1513# </a> (1999-01-26)
1514# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1515# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1516
1517
1518# Midway
1519
1520# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1521# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1522# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1523# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1524# Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1525# your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1526# we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1527# air at 6am your time.
1528#
1529# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1530# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1531# started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1532# in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1533
1534
1535# Pitcairn
1536
1537# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1538# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1539# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1540#
1541#       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1542#       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1543#       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1544#
1545# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1546# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1547# somehow in light of this proclamation.
1548
1549# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1550# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1551# ... at midnight.
1552
1553# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1554# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1555# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1556# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1557
1558
1559# Samoa
1560
1561# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1562# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1563# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1564# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
1565# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
1566
1567
1568# Tonga
1569
1570# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1571# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
1572# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
1573# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1574
1575# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1576# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
1577# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
1578# </a>:
1579
1580# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1581# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
1582# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1583# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1584# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1585# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1586#
1587# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1588# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1589# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1590#
1591# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1592# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1593# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1594# minutes we have lost?"
1595#
1596# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1597# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1598# to say your prayers in the morning."
1599
1600# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1601# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
1602
1603# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1604# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
1605# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1606# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1607# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1608# Government.
1609
1610# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1611# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1612#
1613# I was given this link by John Letts:
1614# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
1615# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1616# </a>
1617#
1618# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1619# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1620# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1621# (12 + 1 hour DST).
1622
1623# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
1624# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
1625# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
1626# </a>:
1627# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1628# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1629# third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1630# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1631# set back an hour on the closing date."
1632# Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1633
1634# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1635# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1636# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1637
1638# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1639# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1640# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1641# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1642# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1643# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1644# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
1645
1646# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1647# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1648
1649# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1650# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1651# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1652# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1653# hour to 1:00am.
1654
1655# From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1656# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
1657
1658
1659# Wake
1660
1661# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1662# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1663#
1664# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ...  The time was all the
1665# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1666# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1667# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1668# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1669# impossible.
1670#
1671# http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1672
1673# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1674# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1675
1676###############################################################################
1677
1678# The International Date Line
1679
1680# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1681#
1682# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1683# convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1684# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1685# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1686#
1687# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1688# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1689# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1690# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
1691# has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1692# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
1693# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
1694# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1695# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
1696# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1697# correct date is ambiguous.
1698
1699# From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1700# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1701# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1702# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1703# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
1704# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1705# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1706# on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1707# nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
1708# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1709# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight.  These zones were
1710# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1711# independent merchant ships until World War II.
1712
1713# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1714# (2005-03-20):
1715#
1716# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1717# <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
1718# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1719# international waters; it ignores the international date line.
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