source: appstream-generator/contrib/setup/js_tmp/Flot/examples/axes-time-zones/tz/europe @ 4841

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1# <pre>
2# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
3# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
4
5# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
6# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
7# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
8
9# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
10# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
11# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
12# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
13#
14# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
15# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
16# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
17# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
18# of the IATA's data after 1990.
19#
20# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
21# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
22#
23# Other sources occasionally used include:
24#
25#       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
26#       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
27#       which I found in the UCLA library.
28#
29#       <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
30#       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
31#       </a> (1914-03)
32#
33#       Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),
34#       <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">
35#       History of Summer Time
36#       </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
37
38#
39# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
40# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
41# Corrections are welcome!
42#                   std dst  2dst
43#                   LMT           Local Mean Time
44#       -4:00       AST ADT       Atlantic
45#       -3:00       WGT WGST      Western Greenland*
46#       -1:00       EGT EGST      Eastern Greenland*
47#        0:00       GMT BST  BDST Greenwich, British Summer
48#        0:00       GMT IST       Greenwich, Irish Summer
49#        0:00       WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
50#        0:19:32.13 AMT NST       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
51#        0:20       NET NEST      Netherlands (1937-1940)*
52#        1:00       CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
53#        1:00:14    SET           Swedish (1879-1899)*
54#        2:00       EET EEST      Eastern Europe
55#        3:00       MSK MSD       Moscow
56#
57# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
58# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
59
60# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
61# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
62# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
63# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
64# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
65# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
66# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
67# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
68# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
69# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
70# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
71# ...
72# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
73# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
74# ...
75# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
76# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
77# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
78# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
79# in the Directive.
80
81
82###############################################################################
83
84# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
85
86# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
87#
88# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
89# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
90# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
91# of the text said:
92#
93# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
94# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
95# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
96# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
97# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
98# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
99# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
100#
101# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
102# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
103# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
104#
105# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
106
107# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
108#
109# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
110# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
111# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
112# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
113# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
114# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
115# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
116# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
117# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
118# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
119# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
120# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
121# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
122# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
123# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
124# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
125# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
126# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
127# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
128# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
129#
130# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
131# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
132# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
133
134# From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):
135# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
136# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
137# who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
138# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
139# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
140# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
141# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
142# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
143# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
144# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
145# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
146# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
147# subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
148# designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial,
149# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
150
151# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
152# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
153# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
154# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
155# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
156# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
157#       -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm">
158#       "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly
159#       </a>
160
161# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
162# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''
163# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
164# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
165# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''.
166
167# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
168#
169# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
170# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
171
172# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
173# From: Jonathan Leffler
174# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
175# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
176# politics making a fortune, not computing.
177
178# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
179# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
180# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
181# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
182# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
183
184# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
185# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
186# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
187# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
188
189# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
190# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
191# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
192# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
193# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
194# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
195# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
196# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png
197
198# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
199# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
200# which is to be introduced in May....
201# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
202# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
203
204# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
205# Howse writes (p 157) `DBST' too, but `BDST' seems to have been common
206# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
207# so we use `BDST'.
208
209# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
210# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
211# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
212# and extending this list, which can be found in
213# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/
214# <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/">
215# History of legal time in Britain
216# </a>
217# Rob Crowther (2012-01-04) reports that that URL no longer
218# exists, and the article can now be found at:
219# <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/">
220# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
221# </a>
222
223# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
224#
225# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
226# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
227# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
228# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
229# </a>.
230
231# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
232#
233# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
234#
235# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
236# are incorrect:
237#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
238#       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
239# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
240#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
241# It actually just had one transition.
242#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
243# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
244#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
245# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
246# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
247#
248# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
249#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
250#       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
251#       conform with Great Britain.
252# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
253#
254# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
255# we'll ignore it for now.
256#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
257#
258#
259# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
260# Shanks & Pottenger.
261# Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
262# (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
263# to London.  For example:
264#
265#   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
266#   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
267
268# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
269# Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie.  These include
270# various relating to legal time, for example:
271#
272# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
273#
274# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
275# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
276#
277# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
278# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
279# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
280#
281# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
282# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
283# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
284#
285# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
286# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
287#
288# (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
289# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
290# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
291#
292# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
293# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
294# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
295# being GMT+1.)
296
297# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
298# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
299# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
300# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
301# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
302# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
303# and Frethun run in CT.
304# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
305# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
306# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
307# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
308# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
309# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
310
311# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
312# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
313# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
314# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
315# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
316# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
317# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
318
319# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
320# Summer Time Act, 1916
321Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST
322Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT
323# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
324Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST
325Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT
326# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
327Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST
328Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT
329# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
330Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST
331Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT
332# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
333Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST
334# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
335Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT
336# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
337Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
338Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT
339# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
340Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST
341Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT
342# The Summer Time Act, 1922
343Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
344Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16 2:00s   0       GMT
345Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
346Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
347# The Summer Time Act, 1925
348Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT
349Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
350Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
351Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
352Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
353Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
354Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
355Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
356Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
357Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
358Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
359# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
360Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16 2:00s   0       GMT
361# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
362Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23 2:00s   1:00    BST
363# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
364Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST
365Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9  1:00s   1:00    BST
366# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
367Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST
368# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
369Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16 1:00s   1:00    BST
370# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
371Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST
372Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9  1:00s   1:00    BST
373# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
374Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT
375Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
376# The Summer Time Act, 1947
377Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST
378Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST
379Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST
380Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT
381# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
382Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST
383Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT
384# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
385Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
386Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT
387# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
388# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
389# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
390Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14 2:00s   1:00    BST
391Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21 2:00s   0       GMT
392# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
393Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
394Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT
395Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
396Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
397Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
398Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
399Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST
400# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
401# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
402# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
403Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST
404Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23 2:00s   0       GMT
405# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
406# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
407# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
408Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19 2:00s   1:00    BST
409# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
410Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST
411# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
412#       (no summer time)
413# The Summer Time Act, 1972
414Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST
415Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23 2:00s   0       GMT
416# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
417# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
418# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
419# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
420Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
421Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23 1:00u   0       GMT
422# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
423# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
424# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
425Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22 1:00u   0       GMT
426# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
427# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
428
429# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
430Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1 0:00s
431                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
432                         1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31 2:00u
433                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
434                         0:00   EU      GMT/BST
435Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
436Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
437Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
438Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
439                        -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21 2:00
440                        -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1 2:00s
441                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
442                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
443                         0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6 2:00
444                         0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16 2:00
445                         0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2 2:00
446                         0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18 2:00
447                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
448                         1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31 2:00u
449                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
450                         0:00   EU      GMT/IST
451
452###############################################################################
453
454# Europe
455
456# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
457# Common Market, etc.
458
459# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
460Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00u  1:00    S
461Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
462Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
463Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
464Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
465Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
466# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
467# <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT">
468# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
469# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
470# </a>
471
472# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
473Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    S
474Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
475Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       -
476Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
477Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
478Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
479
480# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
481# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
482Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
483Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
484Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15  2:00s  1:00    S
485Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15  2:00s  0       -
486Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S
487Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
488Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
489Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
490Rule    C-Eur   1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1   2:00s  1:00    S
491# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
492Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       -
493# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
494#
495# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
496# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
497# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the
498# tz database itself, as seen below:
499#
500# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
501#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
502#
503# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
504#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
505#
506# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
507#    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
508#
509# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
510# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
511# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
512#
513# The rule line to be changed is:
514#
515# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
516#
517# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
518# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
519# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
520# affected are apparently these ficticious zones that translates acronyms
521# CET and MET:
522#
523# Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
524# Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
525#
526# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
527#
528# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
529#
530# A small step for mankind though 8-)
531Rule    C-Eur   1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
532Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S
533Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
534Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
535Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
536Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
537Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
538
539# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
540Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S
541Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
542Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
543Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
544Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
545Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
546
547# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
548Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST     # Moscow Summer Time
549Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT     # Moscow Mean Time
550Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST    # Moscow Double Summer Time
551Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST
552Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST
553Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       2:00   1:00    S
554Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       -
555Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
556Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    M # Midsummer
557Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    S
558Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
559# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
560Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S
561Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
562# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
563# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
564Rule    Russia  1984    1991    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
565Rule    Russia  1985    1991    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
566#
567Rule    Russia  1992    only    -       Mar     lastSat  23:00  1:00    S
568Rule    Russia  1992    only    -       Sep     lastSat  23:00  0       -
569Rule    Russia  1993    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
570Rule    Russia  1993    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
571Rule    Russia  1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
572
573# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
574# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
575# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
576# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
577#
578# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
579# <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583">
580# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
581# </a>
582#
583# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
584# <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html">
585# http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
586# </a>
587
588# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
589# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
590# to be standard.
591
592# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
593
594# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
595Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
596Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
597Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
598Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
599
600# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
601# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
602
603# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
604# The official German names ... are
605#
606#       Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
607#       Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
608#
609# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
610# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
611# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
612#
613#       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
614#       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
615#       Postfach 3345
616#       D-38023 Braunschweig
617#       phone: +49 531 592-0
618#
619# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
620# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
621# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
622#
623#       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
624#       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
625
626
627# Albania
628# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
629Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S
630Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
631Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S
632Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       -
633Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S
634Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
635Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
636Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
637Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
638Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
639Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
640Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
641Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
642Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
643Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
644Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
645Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
646Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
647Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
648Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
649Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
650Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
651Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
652Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
653Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
654# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
655Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
656                        1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
657                        1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
658                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
659
660# Andorra
661# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
662Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
663                        0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
664                        1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31 2:00
665                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
666
667# Austria
668
669# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
670# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
671# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
672# date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
673# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
674# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
675
676# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
677Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
678Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
679Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
680Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
681Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
682Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
683Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
684Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
685# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
686Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:20 -       LMT     1893 Apr
687                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
688                        1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1 2:00s
689                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00s
690                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12 2:00s
691                        1:00    -       CET     1946
692                        1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
693                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
694
695# Belarus
696# From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
697# By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
698# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
699#
700# Sources (Russian language):
701# 1.
702# <a href="http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html">
703# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
704# </a>
705# 2.
706# <a href="http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/">
707# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
708# </a>
709# 3.
710# <a href="http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html">
711# http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
712# </a>
713# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
714Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
715                        1:50    -       MMT     1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
716                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
717                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
718                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
719                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
720                        3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31 2:00s
721                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29 2:00s
722                        2:00    -       EET     1992 Mar 29 0:00s
723                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1992 Sep 27 0:00s
724                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27 2:00s
725                        3:00    -       FET # Further-eastern European Time
726
727# Belgium
728#
729# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
730# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
731#       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
732#       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
733#       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
734#       pp 8-9.
735# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
736#       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
737# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
738# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
739# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
740#
741# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
742Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S
743Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
744Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
745Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
746Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
747Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
748Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
749Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
750Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
751Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S
752Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
753Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
754# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
755# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
756# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
757# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
758Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
759Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
760Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
761Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2   2:00s  0       -
762Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
763Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
764Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
765Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
766Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
767Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
768Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
769Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
770Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
771Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
772Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
773Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
774Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
775Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
776Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
777Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
778Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
779Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
780# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
781Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
782                        0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00 # Brussels MT
783                        0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
784                        1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
785                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
786                        0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
787                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
788                        1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
789                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
790
791# Bosnia and Herzegovina
792# see Serbia
793
794# Bulgaria
795#
796# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
797# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
798# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
799# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
800#
801# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
802Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
803Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
804Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1  23:00   1:00    S
805Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
806Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
807# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
808Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
809                        1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
810                        2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
811                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
812                        1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr 2 3:00
813                        2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
814                        2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  2:00
815                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
816                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
817                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
818
819# Croatia
820# see Serbia
821
822# Cyprus
823# Please see the `asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
824
825# Czech Republic
826# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
827Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    S
828Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
829Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
830Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
831Rule    Czech   1947    only    -       Apr     20      2:00s   1:00    S
832Rule    Czech   1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
833Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
834# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
835Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
836                        0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct     # Prague Mean Time
837                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 17 2:00s
838                        1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
839                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
840
841# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
842
843# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
844# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
845# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
846# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
847# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
848#
849# The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
850# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
851#
852# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
853# in subsequenet decrees with the law
854# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
855#
856# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
857# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
858# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
859# 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
860# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
861# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
862# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
863# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
864# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
865# was suspended on that night):
866# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
867
868# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
869# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
870# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
871
872# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
873# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
874# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
875
876# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
877Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
878Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
879Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
880Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
881Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
882Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
883Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
884Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
885Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
886Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
887Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
888#
889# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
890Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
891                         0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
892                         1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2 2:00s
893                         1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00
894                         1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
895                         1:00   EU      CE%sT
896Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11     # Torshavn
897                         0:00   -       WET     1981
898                         0:00   EU      WE%sT
899#
900# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
901# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
902# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
903# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
904#
905# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
906# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
907# and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
908# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab
909# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
910# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
911
912# From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing
913# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
914# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
915#
916# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
917# is according to the following time line:
918#
919# The military zone near Thule  UTC-4
920# Standard Greenland time       UTC-3
921# Scoresbysund                  UTC-1
922# Danmarkshavn                  UTC
923#
924# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
925# introduced.
926
927# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
928#
929# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
930# the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
931# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
932# info from earlier correspondence.]
933#
934# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
935# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
936# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
937#
938# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
939# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
940# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
941# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
942# email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
943# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
944# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
945#
946# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
947# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab).
948#
949# The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it
950# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
951# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
952#
953# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
954# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
955# maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
956# this area is that it sticks with Godthab time.  This area might be
957# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
958
959# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
960# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
961# there at 2:00 AM.
962
963# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
964# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
965# the 1995 map as like Godthab.
966# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996.
967# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
968# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
969# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
970#
971# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
972Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
973Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
974Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D
975Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
976Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D
977Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S
978#
979# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
980Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
981                        -3:00   -       WGT     1980 Apr  6 2:00
982                        -3:00   EU      WG%sT   1996
983                        0:00    -       GMT
984Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
985                        -2:00   -       CGT     1980 Apr  6 2:00
986                        -2:00   C-Eur   CG%sT   1981 Mar 29
987                        -1:00   EU      EG%sT
988Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
989                        -3:00   -       WGT     1980 Apr  6 2:00
990                        -3:00   EU      WG%sT
991Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
992                        -4:00   Thule   A%sT
993
994# Estonia
995# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
996# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
997# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
998# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
999#
1000# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
1001# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1002# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
1003# ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
1004# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1005# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1006# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1007# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1008# summer time next spring.''
1009
1010# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
1011# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">
1012# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1013# </a>
1014# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1015# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).
1016#
1017# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1018# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1019# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1020
1021# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
1022# via Steffen Thorsen:
1023# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1024# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1025# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1026# Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1027# for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1028# after that.
1029
1030# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1031# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1032# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1033# the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1034
1035# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1036# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1037# Now we are using again EU rules.
1038#
1039# From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28):
1040# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1041
1042# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1043Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1044                        1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
1045                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1046                        1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1047                        2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1048                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1049                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1050                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
1051                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24 2:00s
1052                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1053                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Nov  1
1054                        2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1055                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
1056
1057# Finland
1058
1059# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1060# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1061# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1062
1063# From Janne Snabb (2010-0715):
1064#
1065# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1066# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1067# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1068# according to the central European standards.
1069#
1070# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1071# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1072# Finnish) at
1073#
1074# <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf">
1075# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1076# </a>
1077#
1078# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1079# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1080#
1081# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
1082#
1083# <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401">
1084# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1085# </a>
1086#
1087# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1088# exist tonight."
1089
1090# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1091Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S
1092Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       -
1093Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1094Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1095# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1096Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1097                        1:39:52 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1098                        2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1099                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
1100
1101# Aaland Is
1102Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1103
1104
1105# France
1106
1107# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1108#
1109# Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions
1110# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1111#
1112# Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur,
1113# Paris, 1991
1114#
1115# Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie,
1116# Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987
1117
1118
1119#
1120# Shank & Pottenger seem to use `24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
1121# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1122Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1123Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1  23:00s  0       -
1124Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
1125Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1126Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
1127Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1128Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
1129Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1130Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
1131Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1132# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1133# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
1134# were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1135Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
1136Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1137Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
1138Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
1139Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
1140Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1141Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1142Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
1143Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S
1144Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1145Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
1146Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1147Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
1148Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
1149Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1150Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
1151Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1152Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1153Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1154Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1155# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1156# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
1157# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez,
1158# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La
1159# Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
1160# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1161# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois,
1162# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
1163Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer
1164# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
1165# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1166# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1167# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1168Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1169Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1170Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1171Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1172Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1173Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1174Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1175Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1176Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1177# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1178# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1179Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1180Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1181# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1182# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1183# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1184# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1185# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1186Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1187                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01  # Paris MT
1188# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1189                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1190# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1191# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1192                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1193                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1194                        1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1195                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1196
1197# Germany
1198
1199# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1200# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1201# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1202# [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1203
1204# From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1205# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1206# <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/">
1207# General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>.
1208
1209# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1210# <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf">
1211# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1212# </a>
1213# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1214# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1215# this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
1216
1217
1218# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1219Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1220Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1221Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
1222# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1223# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1224# Go with the PTB.
1225Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1226Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1227Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1228Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1229Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1230
1231Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1232Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1233Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1234
1235# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1236Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1237                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24 2:00
1238                        1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1239                        1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1240                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1241
1242# Georgia
1243# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1244# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1245# is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1246
1247# Gibraltar
1248# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1249Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2 0:00s
1250                        0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14 2:00
1251                        1:00    -       CET     1982
1252                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1253
1254# Greece
1255# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1256# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1257Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1258Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1259# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1260Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1261# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1262Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1263Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1264Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1265# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1266Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1267Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1268Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1269Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1270Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1271Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1272Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    S
1273Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1274Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1275Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1276Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1277Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1278Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1279# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1280Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1281                        1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28 0:01     # Athens MT
1282                        2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1283                        1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1284                        2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1285                        # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1286                        # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
1287                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
1288
1289# Hungary
1290# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1291Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1292Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     29       3:00   0       -
1293Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1294Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Sep     15       3:00   0       -
1295Rule    Hungary 1920    only    -       Apr      5       3:00   1:00    S
1296Rule    Hungary 1920    only    -       Sep     30       3:00   0       -
1297Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1298Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      3       0:00   0       -
1299Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1300Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       -
1301Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4   2:00s  1:00    S
1302Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1303Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1304Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1305Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1306Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S
1307Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1308Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   1:00   1:00    S
1309Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1310Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1311# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1312Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1313                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1314                        1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  6  2:00
1315                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1316                        1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1317                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1318
1319# Iceland
1320#
1321# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1322# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1323#
1324# (1993-12-05):
1325# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1326# Iceland Almanak.
1327#
1328# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1329# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1330# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1331# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1332#
1333# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1334# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1335# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
1336# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1337#
1338# (1993-12-10):
1339# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1340# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1341# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1342#       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1343#       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1344# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1345# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1346# might mean something else (???).
1347#
1348# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1349# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points.
1350# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely
1351# that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
1352#
1353# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1354Rule    Iceland 1917    1918    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    S
1355Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1356Rule    Iceland 1918    only    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1357Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    S
1358Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Nov     29       2:00   0       -
1359Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1360Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Nov      3       2:00   0       -
1361Rule    Iceland 1941    only    -       Mar      2       1:00s  1:00    S
1362Rule    Iceland 1941    only    -       Nov      2       1:00s  0       -
1363Rule    Iceland 1942    only    -       Mar      8       1:00s  1:00    S
1364Rule    Iceland 1942    only    -       Oct     25       1:00s  0       -
1365# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1366Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    S
1367Rule    Iceland 1943    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00s  0       -
1368# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1369Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    S
1370# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
1371Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1372Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00s  0       -
1373Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1374# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1375Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 -      LMT     1837
1376                        -1:27:48 -      RMT     1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
1377                        -1:00   Iceland IS%sT   1968 Apr 7 1:00s
1378                         0:00   -       GMT
1379
1380# Italy
1381#
1382# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1383# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1384# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1385# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1386# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1387# so record only the time in Rome.
1388#
1389# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1390# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
1391# F. Pollastri
1392# <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html">
1393# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
1394# </a>
1395# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
1396# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
1397#
1398# year  FP      Shanks&P. (S)   Whitman (W)     Go with:
1399# 1916  06-03   06-03 24:00     06-03 00:00     FP & W
1400#       09-30   09-30 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1401# 1917  04-01   03-31 24:00     03-31 00:00     FP & S
1402#       09-30   09-29 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP & W
1403# 1918  03-09   03-09 24:00     03-09 00:00     FP & S
1404#       10-06   10-05 24:00     10-06 01:00     FP & W
1405# 1919  03-01   03-01 24:00     03-01 00:00     FP & S
1406#       10-04   10-04 24:00     10-04 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1407# 1920  03-20   03-20 24:00     03-20 00:00     FP & S
1408#       09-18   09-18 24:00     10-01 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1409# 1944  04-02   04-03 02:00                     S (see C-Eur)
1410#       09-16   10-02 03:00                     FP; guess 24:00s
1411# 1945  09-14   09-16 24:00                     FP; guess 24:00s
1412# 1970  05-21   05-31 00:00                     S
1413#       09-20   09-27 00:00                     S
1414#
1415# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1416Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      0:00s   1:00    S
1417Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       -
1418Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Apr      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1419Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       -
1420Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar     10      0:00s   1:00    S
1421Rule    Italy   1918    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00s   0       -
1422Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      2      0:00s   1:00    S
1423Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1424Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     19      0:00s   0       -
1425Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     15      0:00s   1:00    S
1426Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17      0:00s   0       -
1427Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    S
1428Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15      0:00s   0       -
1429Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17      2:00s   1:00    S
1430Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6      2:00s   0       -
1431Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16      0:00s   1:00    S
1432Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5      0:00s   0       -
1433Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29      2:00s   1:00    S
1434Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       -
1435Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22 0:00    1:00    S
1436Rule    Italy   1966    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22 0:00    0       -
1437Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
1438Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31      0:00    1:00    S
1439Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1440Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22 0:00    1:00    S
1441Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00    0       -
1442Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
1443Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    S
1444Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1445Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26      0:00    1:00    S
1446Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1447Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00s   0       -
1448Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30      0:00s   1:00    S
1449Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22 0:00s   1:00    S
1450Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       -
1451Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       -
1452# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1453Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
1454                        0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Nov  1 0:00s # Rome Mean
1455                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2 2:00s
1456                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul
1457                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1458                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1459
1460Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1461Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1462
1463# Latvia
1464
1465# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1466
1467# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1468# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1469# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1470# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1471#
1472# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1473# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1474# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1475# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1476# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1477#
1478# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1479# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1480# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1481# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1482# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1483# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1484#
1485# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1486# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1487# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1488# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1489# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1490# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1491# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
1492# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1493# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1494# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1495#
1496# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1497# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1498# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1499
1500# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1501# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1502# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
1503# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1504# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).
1505
1506# <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html">
1507# From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1508# </a>
1509# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1510# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1511# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1512# clocks one hour in the spring....
1513# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few
1514# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1515# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1516# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1517# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1518# appears that they will not do so....
1519
1520# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1521Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1522Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1523# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1524Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:24 -       LMT     1880
1525                        1:36:24 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
1526                        1:36:24 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
1527                        1:36:24 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1 2:00
1528                        1:36:24 1:00    LST     1919 May 22 3:00
1529                        1:36:24 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1530                        2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1531                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1532                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1533                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
1534                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
1535                        2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1536                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1537                        2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1538                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
1539
1540# Liechtenstein
1541# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1542Zone    Europe/Vaduz    0:38:04 -       LMT     1894 Jun
1543                        1:00    -       CET     1981
1544                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1545
1546# Lithuania
1547
1548# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1549# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1550# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1551
1552# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
1553# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1554# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1555
1556# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
1557# via Steffen Thorsen:
1558# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1559# to be valid here starting from October 31,
1560# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1561# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1562# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1563# already done by Estonia.
1564
1565# From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm">
1566# Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1567# </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1568
1569# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1570# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1571# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1572# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1573# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1574# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1575# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1576
1577
1578# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1579Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1580                        1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1581                        1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1582                        1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1583                        2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1584                        1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1585                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1586                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1587                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1588                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29 2:00s
1589                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1590                        2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29 1:00u
1591                        1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31 1:00u
1592                        2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1593                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
1594
1595# Luxembourg
1596# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1597# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1598# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1599Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1600Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
1601Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S
1602Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1603Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15  2:00s  1:00    S
1604Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15  2:00s  0       -
1605Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1606Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1607Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1608Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1609Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1610Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1611Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1612Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2   1:00   0       -
1613Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1614Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2   2:00   0       -
1615Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1616Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2   1:00   0       -
1617Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1618Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1619Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1620Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1621Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1622# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1623Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1624                        1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1625                        0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6 2:00s
1626                        0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14 3:00
1627                        1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18 3:00
1628                        1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1629                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1630
1631# Macedonia
1632# see Serbia
1633
1634# Malta
1635# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1636Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1637Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1638Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1639Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1640Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    S
1641Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    0       -
1642Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1643# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1644Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2 0:00s # Valletta
1645                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2 2:00s
1646                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00s
1647                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1648                        1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1649                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1650
1651# Moldova
1652
1653# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1654# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1655# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
1656# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1657# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1658# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1659# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
1660# But [two people] separately reported via
1661# Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1662# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
1663#
1664# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1665# Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1666# "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1667# to the Winter Time).
1668#
1669# News (in Russian):
1670# <a href="http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html">
1671# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
1672# </a>
1673#
1674# <a href="http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html">
1675# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
1676# </a>
1677#
1678# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1679# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1680#
1681# From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1682# In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1683# a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1684#
1685# (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
1686#
1687# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
1688# NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
1689# As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1690# decision to abolish DST this winter.
1691# Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1692# Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1693# News from Moldova (in russian):
1694# <a href="http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html">
1695# http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1696# </a>
1697
1698
1699# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1700Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1701                        1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1702                        1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1703                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1704                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1705                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1706                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
1707                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 May 6
1708                        2:00    -       EET     1991
1709                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1710                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1711# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1712                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
1713
1714# Monaco
1715# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1716# more precise 0:09:21.
1717# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1718Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
1719                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
1720                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16 3:00
1721                        1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1722                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1723
1724# Montenegro
1725# see Serbia
1726
1727# Netherlands
1728
1729# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1730# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1731
1732# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1733# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1734# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1735# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1736# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1737# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1738# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1739# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1740# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1741#
1742# (2001-04-08):
1743# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1744# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1745# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1746#
1747# (2001-04-09):
1748# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1749# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1750# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
1751# actually followed.
1752#
1753# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
1754# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
1755# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
1756# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
1757# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
1758#
1759# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
1760# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
1761# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
1762# Amsterdam mean time.
1763
1764# The data before 1945 are taken from
1765# <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>.
1766
1767# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1768Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time
1769Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time
1770Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST
1771Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT
1772Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1  2:00s   1:00    NST
1773Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
1774Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1775Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       AMT
1776Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1  2:00s   1:00    NST
1777Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1778Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1  2:00s   1:00    NST
1779# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
1780# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
1781Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1782Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1783Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1784Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1785Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1786Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       -
1787Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
1788Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1789Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
1790#
1791# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
1792# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
1793# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1794Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
1795                        0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
1796                        0:20    Neth    NE%sT   1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time
1797                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00
1798                        1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
1799                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1800
1801# Norway
1802# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
1803# Pottenger.
1804# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1805Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
1806Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1807Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1808Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
1809Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    S
1810Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       -
1811Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
1812# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1813Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
1814                        1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
1815                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1816                        1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
1817                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1818
1819# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
1820
1821# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
1822# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
1823# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
1824# time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
1825# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
1826# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
1827# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and
1828# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html).  The law/regulation
1829# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
1830# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
1831# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
1832# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been
1833# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
1834# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by
1835# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
1836# since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
1837# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
1838# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
1839
1840# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-01):
1841#
1842# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
1843# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
1844# keeping Berlin time.
1845#
1846# <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
1847# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
1848# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
1849# frequent air ttacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
1850# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
1851# the UTC offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
1852# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
1853#
1854# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
1855# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
1856# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
1857# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
1858# expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
1859# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
1860# <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html>
1861# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
1862# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
1863#
1864# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970.  Unless we can
1865# come up with more definitive info about the timekeeping during the
1866# war years it's probably best just do...the following for now:
1867Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen
1868
1869# Poland
1870# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1871Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
1872Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S
1873Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    S
1874# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1875Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
1876# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1877Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S
1878Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
1879# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
1880# Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
1881# <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1>
1882# Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
1883# He also gives these further references:
1884# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
1885# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
1886Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
1887Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1888Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
1889Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
1890Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1891Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1892Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
1893Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
1894Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
1895Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
1896Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1  1:00s   0       -
1897Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
1898Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
1899Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
1900# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1901Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
1902                        1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5   # Warsaw Mean Time
1903                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16 3:00
1904                        2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
1905                        1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23 2:00
1906                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
1907                        1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
1908                        1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
1909                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
1910
1911# Portugal
1912#
1913# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
1914# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
1915# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
1916#
1917# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
1918# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
1919# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
1920#
1921# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
1922# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
1923# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
1924# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
1925# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
1926# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
1927# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
1928#
1929# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1930# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
1931# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
1932# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1933Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S
1934# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1935Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       -
1936Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
1937Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
1938Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
1939Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
1940Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S
1941Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
1942Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
1943Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
1944Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
1945Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
1946Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1947Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1948Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
1949Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1950# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1951Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
1952Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
1953Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
1954# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1955Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
1956# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
1957Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
1958Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1959# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1960Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
1961Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1962Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1963# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1964Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1965Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S
1966# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
1967Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       -
1968Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
1969Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8  23:00s  1:00    S
1970Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
1971Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S
1972Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24 23:00s  0       -
1973Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
1974Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25 22:00s  1:00    S
1975Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21 22:00s  2:00    M
1976Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1  23:00s  1:00    S
1977Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
1978Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S
1979Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       -
1980# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
1981# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1982Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S
1983Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       -
1984Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
1985Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
1986Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1   0:00s  1:00    S
1987Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1988Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
1989Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
1990Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
1991Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1992# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1993# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24;
1994# Willett says 1912-01-01.  Go with Willett.
1995Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:32 -      LMT     1884
1996                        -0:36:32 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  # Lisbon Mean Time
1997                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3 2:00
1998                         1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26 1:00
1999                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25 1:00s
2000                         0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27 1:00s
2001                         1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31 1:00u
2002                         0:00   EU      WE%sT
2003Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884            # Ponta Delgada
2004                        -1:54:32 -      HMT     1911 May 24  # Horta Mean Time
2005                        -2:00   Port    AZO%sT  1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Azores Time
2006                        -1:00   Port    AZO%sT  1983 Sep 25 1:00s
2007                        -1:00   W-Eur   AZO%sT  1992 Sep 27 1:00s
2008                         0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28 1:00u
2009                        -1:00   EU      AZO%sT
2010Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884            # Funchal
2011                        -1:07:36 -      FMT     1911 May 24  # Funchal Mean Time
2012                        -1:00   Port    MAD%sT  1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Madeira Time
2013                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25 1:00s
2014                         0:00   EU      WE%sT
2015
2016# Romania
2017#
2018# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2019# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
2020# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2021# 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2022# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2023# the same year as Bulgaria.
2024#
2025# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2026Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2027Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1   0:00s  0       -
2028Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2   0:00s  1:00    S
2029Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2030Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2031Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2032Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2033Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2034Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2035# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2036Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2037                        1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24     # Bucharest MT
2038                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29 2:00s
2039                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2040                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2041                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2042                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
2043
2044# Russia
2045
2046# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2047# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
2048# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
2049# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2050# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2051# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
2052#
2053# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2054# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2055# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2056# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2057# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2058#
2059# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
2060# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
2061# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
2062# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2063# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2064#
2065# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
2066# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2067# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2068# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2069#
2070# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2071# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2072# News--often false--is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
2073# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2074# the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began
2075# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2076#
2077# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2078# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2079# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
2080# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2081# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2082# since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
2083# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2084# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2085#
2086# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2087#
2088# Kaliningradskaya oblast'.
2089Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr
2090                         1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2091                         2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946
2092                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2093                         2:00   Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2094                         3:00   -       FET # Further-eastern European Time
2095#
2096# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2097# Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast',
2098# Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast',
2099# Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast',
2100# Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya,
2101# Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya,
2102# Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya,
2103# Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi,
2104# Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast',
2105# Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El,
2106# Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast',
2107# Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug,
2108# Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast',
2109# Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast',
2110# Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg,
2111# Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast',
2112# Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan,
2113# Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast',
2114# Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast',
2115# Yaroslavskaya oblast'
2116Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:20 -      LMT     1880
2117                         2:30   -       MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
2118                         2:30:48 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1 2:00
2119                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2120                         2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2121                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2122                         2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2123                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2124                         4:00   -       MSK
2125#
2126# Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast',
2127# Volgogradskaya oblast'.  Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400
2128# but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300.  Perhaps it switched after the
2129# others?  But we have no data.
2130Zone Europe/Volgograd    2:57:40 -      LMT     1920 Jan  3
2131                         3:00   -       TSAT    1925 Apr  6 # Tsaritsyn Time
2132                         3:00   -       STAT    1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
2133                         4:00   -       STAT    1961 Nov 11
2134                         4:00   Russia  VOL%sT  1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
2135                         3:00   Russia  VOL%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2136                         4:00   -       VOLT    1992 Mar 29 2:00s
2137                         3:00   Russia  VOL%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2138                         4:00   -       VOLT
2139#
2140# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2141# Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika
2142Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:36 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1 2:00
2143                         3:00   -       SAMT    1930 Jun 21
2144                         4:00   -       SAMT    1935 Jan 27
2145                         4:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
2146                         3:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2147                         2:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2148                         3:00   -       KUYT    1991 Oct 20 3:00
2149                         4:00   Russia  SAM%sT  2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time
2150                         3:00   Russia  SAM%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2151                         4:00   -       SAMT
2152
2153#
2154# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2155# Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug,
2156# Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast',
2157# Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast',
2158# Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast',
2159# Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2160Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:24 -      LMT     1919 Jul 15 4:00
2161                         4:00   -       SVET    1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
2162                         5:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2163                         4:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2164                         5:00   Russia  YEK%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2165                         6:00   -       YEKT    # Yekaterinburg Time
2166#
2167# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2168# Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.
2169Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:36 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14
2170                         5:00   -       OMST    1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
2171                         6:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2172                         5:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2173                         6:00   Russia  OMS%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2174                         7:00   -       OMST
2175#
2176# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
2177# not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
2178# Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.
2179Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14 6:00
2180                         6:00   -       NOVT    1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
2181                         7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2182                         6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2183                         7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
2184                         6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2185                         7:00   -       NOVT
2186
2187# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2188# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2189# March 28, 2010:
2190# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2191# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2192#
2193# This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September
2194# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2195# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2196#
2197# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
2198# <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv">
2199# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
2200# </a>
2201# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2202# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
2203# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html">
2204# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
2205# </a>
2206#
2207# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2208# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
2209#
2210# As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
2211# Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
2212
2213Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk   5:48:48 -      NMT     1920 Jan  6
2214                         6:00   -       KRAT    1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2215                         7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2216                         6:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2217                         7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  2010 Mar 28 2:00s
2218                         6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2219                         7:00   -       NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time
2220
2221#
2222# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2223# Krasnoyarskij kraj,
2224# Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug,
2225# Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2226Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:20 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6
2227                         6:00   -       KRAT    1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2228                         7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2229                         6:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2230                         7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2231                         8:00   -       KRAT
2232#
2233# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2234# Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast',
2235# Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2236Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:20 -      LMT     1880
2237                         6:57:20 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
2238                         7:00   -       IRKT    1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
2239                         8:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2240                         7:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2241                         8:00   Russia  IRK%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2242                         9:00   -       IRKT
2243#
2244# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
2245# Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast',
2246# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'.
2247
2248# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2249# ...some regions of [Russia] were merged with others since 2005...
2250# Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name.
2251# YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj.
2252
2253# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2254# The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij,
2255# Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj,
2256# Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij,
2257# Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij,
2258# Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij,
2259# Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij.
2260
2261Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2262                         8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2263                         9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2264                         8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2265                         9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2266                         10:00  -       YAKT
2267#
2268# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
2269# Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj,
2270# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
2271
2272# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2273# The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, Tomponskij, Ust'-Majskij,
2274# Ust'-Yanskij.
2275Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:44 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15
2276                         9:00   -       VLAT    1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
2277                        10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2278                         9:00   Russia  VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2279                        10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2280                        11:00   -       VLAT
2281#
2282# Sakhalinskaya oblast'.
2283# The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
2284Zone Asia/Sakhalin       9:30:48 -      LMT     1905 Aug 23
2285                         9:00   -       CJT     1938
2286                         9:00   -       JST     1945 Aug 25
2287                        11:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T.
2288                        10:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2289                        11:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
2290                        10:00   Russia  SAK%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2291                        11:00   -       SAKT
2292#
2293# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
2294# Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
2295# Probably also: Kuril Islands.
2296
2297# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2298# The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij,
2299# Nizhnekolymskij, Ojmyakonskij, Srednekolymskij.
2300Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2
2301                        10:00   -       MAGT    1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
2302                        11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2303                        10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2304                        11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2305                        12:00   -       MAGT
2306#
2307# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2308# Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2309#
2310# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
2311Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10
2312                        11:00   -       PETT    1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
2313                        12:00   Russia  PET%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2314                        11:00   Russia  PET%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2315                        12:00   Russia  PET%sT  2010 Mar 28 2:00s
2316                        11:00   Russia  PET%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2317                        12:00   -       PETT
2318#
2319# Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug
2320Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
2321                        12:00   -       ANAT    1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
2322                        13:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1982 Apr  1 0:00s
2323                        12:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2324                        11:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2325                        12:00   Russia  ANA%sT  2010 Mar 28 2:00s
2326                        11:00   Russia  ANA%sT  2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2327                        12:00   -       ANAT
2328
2329# Serbia
2330# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2331Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
2332                        1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
2333                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2334                        1:00    -       CET     1945 May 8 2:00s
2335                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
2336# Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of
2337# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
2338# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
2339                        1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
2340                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
2341Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
2342Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
2343Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
2344Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia
2345Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
2346
2347# Slovakia
2348Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
2349
2350# Slovenia
2351# see Serbia
2352
2353# Spain
2354# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2355# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
2356# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2357Rule    Spain   1917    only    -       May      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2358Rule    Spain   1917    1919    -       Oct      6      23:00s  0       -
2359Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2360Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2361# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2362Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2363# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2364Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      23:00s  0       -
2365Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
2366# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2367Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
2368Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
2369Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
2370Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
2371# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
2372# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2373Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       May     22      23:00s  1:00    S
2374Rule    Spain   1937    1939    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       -
2375Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Mar     22      23:00s  1:00    S
2376Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2377Rule    Spain   1940    only    -       Mar     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2378# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2379Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
2380Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1      22:00s  1:00    S
2381Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13 22:00s  2:00    M
2382Rule    Spain   1943    only    -       Oct      3      22:00s  1:00    S
2383Rule    Spain   1944    only    -       Oct     10      22:00s  1:00    S
2384Rule    Spain   1945    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   1:00    S
2385Rule    Spain   1946    only    -       Sep     30       0:00   0       -
2386Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
2387Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   0       -
2388Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=13 23:00   1:00    S
2389Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1   1:00   0       -
2390Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
2391Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2392Rule    Spain   1977    1978    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
2393Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
2394# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
2395Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
2396Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
2397Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
2398Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
2399Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
2400Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
2401Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
2402Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
2403Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
2404# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2405Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1901 Jan  1  0:00s
2406                         0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1946 Sep 30
2407                         1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
2408                         1:00   EU      CE%sT
2409Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1901
2410                         0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
2411                         0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
2412                         0:00   -       WET     1924
2413                         0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
2414                         0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
2415                         1:00   -       CET     1986
2416                         1:00   EU      CE%sT
2417Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
2418                        -1:00   -       CANT    1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
2419                         0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6 0:00s
2420                         0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28 0:00s
2421                         0:00   EU      WE%sT
2422# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
2423# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
2424
2425# Sweden
2426
2427# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
2428#
2429# The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
2430# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
2431# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
2432# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
2433# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
2434#
2435# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
2436# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
2437# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
2438#
2439# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
2440# forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
2441# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
2442# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
2443# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
2444# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
2445# 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
2446# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
2447#
2448# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states
2449# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
2450# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
2451# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
2452#
2453# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
2454# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
2455# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
2456# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
2457# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
2458# the Sok-button).
2459#
2460# (2001-05-13):
2461#
2462# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
2463# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
2464# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
2465# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
2466# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
2467# hour before the event took place.
2468#
2469# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
2470
2471# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2472Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
2473                        1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1     # Swedish Time
2474                        1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
2475                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1 01:00
2476                        1:00    -       CET     1980
2477                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
2478
2479# Switzerland
2480# From Howse:
2481# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
2482# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
2483# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
2484# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2485# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
2486# Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
2487# Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
2488# From Shanks & Pottenger:
2489# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S
2490# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       -
2491
2492# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
2493# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
2494#
2495# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
2496# to be wrong. This is now verified.
2497#
2498# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
2499# government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
2500# federal law collection)...
2501#
2502# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
2503# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
2504#
2505# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
2506# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
2507#
2508# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
2509# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
2510# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
2511# other years are made.
2512#
2513# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
2514# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
2515# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
2516# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
2517#
2518# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de
2519# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
2520# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
2521# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
2522#
2523# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
2524# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
2525# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
2526#
2527# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
2528#
2529# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
2530# most users of tzdata:
2531# The zone file
2532# Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1848 Sep 12
2533#                          0:29:44 -       BMT     1894 Jun #Bern Mean Time
2534#                          1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
2535#                          1:00    EU      CE%sT
2536# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
2537# the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not
2538# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
2539# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
2540
2541# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2542Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
2543Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
2544# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2545Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1848 Sep 12
2546                        0:29:44 -       BMT     1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
2547                        1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
2548                        1:00    EU      CE%sT
2549
2550# Turkey
2551
2552# From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
2553# The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
2554# ... The latest rules are available at -
2555# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
2556# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
2557# I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
2558# DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time.  I am not sure
2559# what happened before that.  One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
2560# http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
2561# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
2562# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
2563# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
2564# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
2565# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
2566# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
2567# Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
2568
2569# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
2570# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
2571# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
2572# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
2573# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
2574# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
2575# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
2576# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
2577# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
2578
2579# From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10):
2580#
2581# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
2582# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
2583# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
2584#
2585# <a href="http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872">
2586# http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
2587# </a>
2588# Turkish:
2589# <a href="http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373">
2590# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
2591# </a>
2592
2593# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2594Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
2595Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2596Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
2597Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
2598Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S
2599Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
2600Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2601Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
2602# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
2603# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2604Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S
2605Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2606Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
2607Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S
2608Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       -
2609Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
2610Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
2611Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2612# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
2613# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2614Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
2615Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S
2616Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
2617Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
2618Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2619Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    S
2620Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       -
2621Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
2622Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S
2623Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
2624Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
2625Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
2626Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
2627Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
2628Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2629Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2  0:00    1:00    S
2630Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       -
2631Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S
2632Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
2633Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
2634Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
2635Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
2636Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2637Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
2638Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S
2639Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
2640Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:00    1:00    S
2641Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11 0:00    0       -
2642Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
2643Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
2644Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
2645Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
2646Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
2647Rule    Turkey  1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    S
2648Rule    Turkey  1986    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
2649Rule    Turkey  1991    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2650Rule    Turkey  1991    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2651Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2652# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2653Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
2654                        1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
2655                        2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
2656                        3:00    Turkey  TR%sT   1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
2657                        2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
2658                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27 1:00u
2659                        2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28 1:00u
2660                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
2661Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
2662
2663# Ukraine
2664#
2665# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukranian Ministry of Justice,
2666# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
2667# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's goverment
2668# regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
2669# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
2670# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
2671# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
2672
2673# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
2674# On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
2675# abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
2676#
2677# Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
2678# approval from 266 deputies.
2679#
2680# Ukraine abolishes transter back to the winter time (in Russian)
2681# <a href="http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/">
2682# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
2683# </a>
2684#
2685# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
2686# <a href="http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html">
2687# http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
2688# </a>
2689#
2690# Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
2691# <a href="http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/">
2692# http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
2693# </a>
2694#
2695# From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
2696# Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
2697# Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
2698# time this year after all.
2699#
2700# From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
2701# As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukranian time zone
2702# (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
2703# to Russia) was reverted today:
2704#
2705# <a href="http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995">
2706# http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
2707# </a>
2708#
2709# Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
2710# The law documents themselves are at
2711#
2712# <a href="http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484">
2713# http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
2714# </a>
2715
2716
2717# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2718# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
2719# "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2720# "Kiev" is more common in English.
2721Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
2722                        2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
2723                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2724                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
2725                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
2726                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2727                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1 2:00
2728                        2:00    -       EET     1992
2729                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
2730                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
2731# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
2732# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2733# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
2734Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
2735                        1:00    -       CET     1940
2736                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2737                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
2738                        1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
2739                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2740                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1 2:00
2741                        1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31 3:00
2742                        2:00    -       EET     1992
2743                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
2744                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
2745# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
2746# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2747# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
2748# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
2749# portable Posix file names.
2750Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880
2751                        2:20    -       CUT     1924 May  2 # Central Ukraine T
2752                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2753                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25
2754                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25
2755                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
2756                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
2757                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
2758# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2759Zone Europe/Simferopol  2:16:24 -       LMT     1880
2760                        2:16    -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
2761                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2762                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Nov
2763                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13
2764                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2765                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1 2:00
2766                        2:00    -       EET     1992
2767# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2768# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2769# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2770# Shanks (1999) says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened
2771# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2772# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
2773# changed in May.
2774                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May
2775# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2776                        3:00    E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
2777                        3:00    1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27 3:00s
2778# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2779# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2780                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1997
2781                        3:00    -       MSK     1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
2782                        2:00    EU      EE%sT
2783
2784###############################################################################
2785
2786# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
2787# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
2788# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
2789#
2790# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
2791# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
2792# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
2793# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
2794# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
2795# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
2796
2797# ...
2798# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
2799# From: Tom Hofmann
2800# ...
2801#
2802# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
2803# most European coun[tr]ies started DST.  Before that year, only
2804# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
2805# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
2806# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
2807# years...
2808# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
2809# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
2810# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
2811# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
2812#
2813# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
2814# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
2815#
2816# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
2817# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
2818# ...
2819
2820# ...
2821# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
2822# From: Dik T. Winter
2823# ...
2824#
2825# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
2826# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
2827# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
2828#
2829# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
2830# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
2831# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
2832# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
2833# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
2834# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
2835# dates...
2836#
2837# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
2838# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
2839# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
2840# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
2841# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
2842# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
2843# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
2844# in advance of normal time.
2845#
2846# ...
2847# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
2848# ...
2849
2850# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
2851# ...
2852# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
2853# Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
2854# ...
2855# Monaco: has same DST as France.
2856# ...
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