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78<p class="titular">ELS DIFTONGS</p>
79<p align="left"><span class="basetext"><strong>1. Concepte</strong><br>
80S'anomena <strong>diftong</strong> el grup fònic que combina dins de la mateixa síl·laba una vocal qualsevol, que funciona com a nucli sil·làbic, i una <strong>i</strong> o una <strong>u,</strong> que funcionen com a semivocal o com a semiconsonant. La <strong>i</strong> i la <strong>u</strong> són semivocals quan es troben darrere de la vocal nuclear: <em>a<strong>i</strong>-re, ca<strong>u</strong>-re.</em> La <strong>u</strong> és semiconsonant quan es troba davant de la vocal nuclear: <em>q<strong>u</strong>a-tre, llen-g<strong>u</strong>a.</em><br></span></p>
81<p align="left" class="basetext"><strong>2. Classificació</strong><br>
82Segons la posició que ocupen la <strong>i</strong> i la <strong>u</strong> en relació a la vocal nuclear, els diftongs es classifiquen en <strong>creixents</strong> i <strong>decreixents.</strong><br>
83Són <strong>diftongs creixents</strong> els formats per una semiconsonant precedida per una <strong>g</strong> o una <strong>q,</strong> i seguida de la vocal nuclear:</p>
84<blockquote>
85<p align="left" class="basetext"><strong>ua</strong>g<strong>ua</strong>ny, q<strong>ua</strong>-tre<strong>&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; üi</strong>lin-g<strong>üí</strong>s-tic, o-bli-q<strong>üi</strong>-tat<br>
86<strong>üe</strong>q<strong>üe</strong>s-ti-ó, un-g<strong>üe</strong>nt<strong>&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; uo</strong>q<strong></strong>-rum, q<strong>uo</strong>-ta</p>
87</blockquote>
88<p align="left"><span class="basetext"><br>
89Són <strong>diftongs decreixents</strong> els formats per una vocal nuclear seguida d'una semivocal:<br></span></p>
90<blockquote>
91<p align="left"><span class="basetext"><strong>aiai</strong>-re, m<strong>ai&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; au</strong>c<strong>au</strong>-ré, p<strong>au</strong><br>
92<strong>ei</strong>r<strong>ei</strong>-na, re-m<strong>ei&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; eu</strong>he-r<strong>eu,</strong> v<strong>eu</strong>-re<br>
93<strong>ii</strong>m<strong>ii</strong>-asi, no-v<strong>ii&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; iu</strong>es-t<strong>iu</strong>, v<strong>iu</strong>-re<br>
94<strong>oi</strong>b<strong>oi</strong>-ra, he-r<strong>oi&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; ou</strong>c<strong>ou</strong>-re, re-m<strong>ou</strong><br>
95<strong>ui</strong>b<strong>ui</strong>t, c<strong>ui</strong>-na<strong>&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; uu</strong>d<strong>uu,</strong> ll<strong>uu</strong></span></p>
96</blockquote>
97<p align="left"><span class="basetext">Les vocals <strong>i</strong> i <strong>u</strong> també poden funcionar com a semiconsonant quan es troben a començament de mot seguides d'una vocal o bé entre dos vocals. En estos casos formen síl·laba amb la vocal següent: <em><strong>ia</strong>m-be, <strong>io</strong>-gurt; h<strong>ie</strong>-na, h<strong>ui;</strong> bo-<strong>ia,</strong> cre-<strong>ua</strong>.</em><br>
98<br>
99La combinació de vocals <strong>iu</strong> no forma diftong en alguns mots d'origen culte, com ara <em>Màr<strong>iu</strong>s, nòn<strong>iu</strong>s, P<strong>iu</strong>s; aquàr<strong>iu</strong>m, càmb<strong>iu</strong>m, còd<strong>iu</strong>m, cosmàr<strong>iu</strong>m, critèr<strong>iu</strong>m, harmòn<strong>iu</strong>m, íl<strong>iu</strong>m, ísqu<strong>iu</strong>m, mèd<strong>iu</strong>m, oíd<strong>iu</strong>m, òmn<strong>iu</strong>m, pandemòn<strong>iu</strong>m, plasmòd<strong>iu</strong>m, pòd<strong>iu</strong>m, presíd<strong>iu</strong>m, simpòs<strong>iu</strong>m, solàr<strong>iu</strong>m, sudatòr<strong>iu</strong>m, terràr<strong>iu</strong>m, velàr<strong>iu</strong>m i vivàr<strong>iu</strong>m.</em></span></p>
100<p align="left"><strong><em>_____</em></strong><br>
101<span class="basetext"><em><strong>Vegeu també:</strong></em></span></p>
102<ul>
103<li><a href="../Accentuacio/accentuaci_.html"><span class="basetext">accentuació</span></a><br></li>
104<li><span class="basetext"><a href="../Dieresi/di_resi.html" class="basetext">dièresi</a></span><br></li>
105<li class="basetext"><a href="../Silaba/s_l_laba.html" class="basetext">síl·laba</a></li>
106</ul>
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